The Scottish Reformation was the process by
which Scotland broke with the Papacy and developed a predominantly Calvinist national Kirk (church),
which was strongly Presbyterian in outlook. It was part of the wider European Protestant
Reformation that took place from the sixteenth century.
From the late fifteenth century the ideas of Renaissance humanism, critical of aspects
of the established Catholic Church, began to reach Scotland, particularly through the
contacts between Scottish and continental scholars. In the earlier part of the sixteenth
century, the teachings of Martin Luther began to influence Scotland. Particularly important
was the work of the Lutheran Scot Patrick Hamilton, who was executed in 1528. Unlike
his uncle Henry VIII in England, James V avoided major structural and theological changes to
the church and used it as a source of income and for appointments for his illegitimate
children and favourites. His death in 1542 left the infant Mary, Queen of Scots as his
heir, allowing a series of English invasions later known as the Rough Wooing. The English
supplied books and distributed Bibles and Protestant literature in the Lowlands when
they invaded in 1547. The execution of the Zwingli-influenced George Wishart in 1546,
who was burnt at the stake on the orders of Cardinal David Beaton, stimulated the growth
of these ideas in reaction. Wishart’s supporters, who included a number of Fife lairds, assassinated
Beaton soon after and seized St. Andrews Castle, which they held for a year before they were
defeated with the help of French forces. The survivors, including chaplain John Knox, were
condemned to serve as galley slaves. Their martyrdom stirred resentment of the French
and inspired additional martyrs for the Protestant cause. In 1549, the defeat of the English
with French support led to the marriage of Mary to the French dauphin and a regency over
Scotland for the queen’s mother, Mary of Guise. Limited toleration and the influence of exiled
Scots and Protestants in other countries, led to the expansion of Protestantism, with
a group of lairds declaring themselves Lords of the Congregation in 1557 and representing
Protestant interests politically. The collapse of the French alliance and the death of the
regent, followed by English intervention in 1560, meant that a relatively small but highly
influential group of Protestants had the power to impose reform on the Scottish church. The
Scottish Reformation Parliament of 1560 approved a Protestant confession of faith, rejecting
papal jurisdiction and the mass. Knox, having escaped the galleys and having spent time
in Geneva, where he became a follower of Calvin, emerged as the most significant figure. The
Calvinism of the reformers led by Knox resulted in a settlement that adopted a Presbyterian
system and rejected most of the elaborate trappings of the Medieval church. When her
husband Francis II died in 1560, the Catholic Mary returned to Scotland to take up the government.
Her six-year personal reign was marred by a series of crises, largely caused by the
intrigues and rivalries of the leading nobles. Opposition to her third husband Bothwell led
to the formation of a coalition of nobles, who captured Mary and forced her abdicate
in favour of her son, who came to the throne as James VI in 1567. James was brought up
a Protestant, but resisted Presbyterianism and the independence of the Kirk.
The Reformation resulted in major changes in Scottish society. These included a desire
to plant a school in every parish and major reforms of the university system. The Kirk
discouraged many forms of plays, as well as poetry that was not devotional in nature;
however, significant playwrights and poets did nevertheless emerge, such as George Buchanan
and the Castalian Band of James VI’s reign. Scotland’s ecclesiastical art paid a heavy
toll as a result of Reformation iconoclasm. Native craftsmen and artists turned to secular
patrons, resulting in the flourishing of Scottish Renaissance painted ceilings and walls. The
Reformation revolutionised church architecture, with new churches built and existing churches
adapted for reformed services, particularly by placing the pulpit centrally in the church,
as preaching was at the centre of worship. The Reformation also had a severe impact on
church music, with song schools closed down, choirs disbanded, music books and manuscripts
destroyed, and organs removed from churches. These were replaced by the congregational
singing of psalms, despite attempts of James VI to refound the song schools and choral
singing. Women gained new educational possibilities and religion played a major part in the lives
of many women, but women were treated as criminals through prosecutions for scolding, prostitution,
and witchcraft. Scottish Protestantism was focused on the Bible, and starting in the
later seventeenth century there would be efforts to stamp out popular activities viewed as
superstitous or frivolous. The Kirk became the subject of national pride and many Scots
saw their country as a new Israel.==Pre-Reformation Scotland=====
Pre-Reformation Church=======
Structure====Christianity spread in Scotland from the sixth
century, with evangelisation by Irish-Scots missionaries and, to a lesser extent, those
from Rome and England. The church in Scotland attained clear independence from England after
the Papal Bull of Celestine III (Cum universi, 1192), by which all Scottish bishoprics except
Galloway became formally independent of York and Canterbury. The whole Ecclesia Scoticana,
with individual Scottish bishoprics (except Whithorn/Galloway), became the “special daughter
of the see of Rome”. It was run by special councils made up of all the Scottish bishops,
with the bishop of St Andrews emerging as the most important figure. The administration
of parishes was often given over to local monastic institutions in a process known as
appropriation. By the time of the Reformation in the mid-sixteenth century 80 per cent of
Scottish parishes were appropriated, leaving few resources for the parish clergy.In 1472
St Andrews became the first archbishopric in the Scottish church, to be followed by
Glasgow in 1492. The collapse of papal authority in the Papal Schism (1378–1418) allowed
the Scottish Crown to gain effective control of major ecclesiastical appointments within
the kingdom. This de facto authority over appointments was formally recognised by the
Papacy in 1487. The Crown placed clients and relatives of the king in key positions, including
James IV’s (r. 1488–1513) illegitimate son Alexander Stewart, who was nominated as Archbishop
of St. Andrews at the age of 11. This practice strengthened royal influence but it also made
the Church vulnerable to criticisms of venality and nepotism. Relationships between the Scottish
Crown and the Papacy were generally good, with James IV receiving tokens of papal favour.====Medieval popular religion====Traditional Protestant historiography tended
to stress the corruption and unpopularity of the late Medieval Scottish church. Since
the late twentieth century, research has indicated the ways in which it met the spiritual needs
of different social groups. Historians have discerned a decline of monastic life in this
period, with many religious houses maintaining smaller numbers of monks. Those remaining
often abandoned communal living for a more individual and secular lifestyle. The rate
of new monastic endowments from the nobility also declined in the fifteenth century. In
contrast, the burghs saw the flourishing of mendicant orders of friars in the later fifteenth
century, who, unlike the older monastic orders, placed an emphasis on preaching and ministering
to the population. The order of Observant Friars were organised as a Scottish province
from 1467, and the older Franciscans and the Dominicans were recognised as separate provinces
in the 1480s. In most Scottish burghs there was usually
only one parish church, in contrast to English towns where churches and parishes tended to
proliferate. As the doctrine of Purgatory gained importance in the late Middle Ages,
the number of chapelries, priests, and masses for the dead prayed within them, designed
to speed the passage of souls to Heaven, grew rapidly. The number of altars dedicated to
saints, who could intercede in this process, also increased dramatically. St. Mary’s in
Dundee had perhaps 48 such altars and St Giles’ in Edinburgh more than 50. The number of saints
celebrated in Scotland also proliferated, with about 90 being added to the missal used
in St Nicholas church in Aberdeen. New cults of devotion related to Jesus and the Virgin
Mary began to reach Scotland in the fifteenth century, including the Five Wounds, the Holy
Blood, and the Holy Name of Jesus. New religious feasts arose, including celebrations of the
Presentation, the Visitation, and Mary of the Snows.In the early fourteenth century,
the Papacy managed to minimise the problem of clerical pluralism, by which clerics held
two or more livings, which elsewhere resulted in parish churches being without priests,
or served by poorly trained and paid vicars and clerks. However, the number of poor clerical
livings and a general shortage of clergy in Scotland, particularly after the Black Death,
meant that in the fifteenth century the problem intensified. As a result, parish clergy were
largely drawn from the lower ranks of the profession, leading to frequent complaints
about their standards of education or abilities. Although there is little clear evidence that
standards were declining, this was expressed as one of the major grievances of the Reformation.
Heresy, in the form of Lollardry, began to reach Scotland from England and Bohemia in
the early fifteenth century. Lollards were followers of John Wycliffe (c. 1330 –84)
and later Jan Hus (c. 1369 –1415), who called for reform of the Church and rejected its
doctrine on the Eucharist. Despite evidence of the burning of heretics and some popular
support for its anti-sacramental elements, it probably remained a small movement.==Pressure to reform=====
Humanism===From the fifteenth century, Renaissance humanism
encouraged critical theological reflection and calls for ecclesiastical renewal in Scotland.
As early as 1495 some Scots were in contact with Desiderius Erasmus (1466–1536), the
Netherlands-born leading figure in the northern humanist movement. They were also in contact
with Jacques Lefèvre d’Étaples (c. 1455 – 1536), a French humanist and scholar who
like Erasmus argued strongly for reform of the Catholic Church by the elimination of
corruption and abuses. Scottish scholars often studied on the Continent and at English universities.
Humanist scholars trained on the Continent were recruited to the new Scottish universities
founded at St Andrews, Glasgow, and Aberdeen. These international contacts helped integrate
Scotland into a wider European scholarly world and were one of the most important ways in
which the new ideas of humanism entered Scottish intellectual life. By 1497 the humanist and
historian Hector Boece, who was born in Dundee and studied at Paris, returned to become the
first principal at the new university of Aberdeen.The continued movement of scholars to other universities
resulted in a school of Scottish nominalists at Paris by the early sixteenth century, the
most important of whom was John Mair, generally described as a scholastic. His Latin History
of Greater Britain (1521) was sympathetic to the humanist social agenda. In 1518 he
returned to become Principal of the University of Glasgow. Another major figure was Archibald
Whitelaw, who taught at St. Andrews and Cologne, becoming a tutor to the young James III and
royal secretary in 1462–93. Robert Reid, Abbot of Kinloss and later Bishop of Orkney,
was responsible in the 1520s and 1530s for bringing the Italian humanist Giovanni Ferrario
to teach at Kinloss Abbey. Ferrario established an impressive library and wrote works of Scottish
history and biography. Reid was to leave sufficient endowment in his will, for the foundation
of Edinburgh University. James McGoldrick suggests that there was a circle of “Erasmian-type
scholar-reformers” at the royal court in the first decade of the sixteenth century.===Lutheranism===From the 1520s the ideas of Martin Luther
began to have influence in Scotland, with Lutheran literature circulating in the east-coast
burghs. In 1525 Parliament banned their importation. In 1527, the English ambassador at Antwerp
noted that Scottish merchants were taking William Tyndale’s New Testament to Edinburgh
and St. Andrews. In 1528 the nobleman Patrick Hamilton, who had been influenced by Lutheran
theology while at the universities of Wittenberg and Marburg, became the first Protestant martyr
in Scotland; he was burned at the stake for heresy outside St Salvator’s College at Saint
Andrews. Hamilton’s execution inspired more interest in the new ideas. The Archbishop
of St Andrews was warned against any further such public executions as “the reek [smoke]
of Maister Patrik Hammyltoun has infected as many as it blew upon”.==Political background (1528–59)=====James V===After entering his personal reign in 1528,
James V avoided pursuing the major structural and theological changes to the church undertaken
by his contemporary Henry VIII in England. In exchange for his loyalty to Rome, he was
able to appoint his many illegitimate children and favourites to office in the Church, particularly
David Beaton, who became Archbishop of Saint Andrews and a Cardinal. James increased crown
revenues by heavily taxing the church, taking £72,000 in four years. The results of such
appointments and taxation undermined both the status and finances of the Church. The
Church was also divided by jurisdictional disputes between Gavin Dunbar, Archbishop
of Glasgow and James Beaton, Archbishop of St. Andrews. As a result, in 1536 the first
provincial church council called since 1470 failed to achieve major reforms or a united
front against heresy. After the execution of Hamilton, the Crown prosecuted some men
and a small number of executions followed in the 1530s and 1540s, but there was no systematic
persecution, as the king was not interested in wide-scale bloodletting. An increasing
number of lairds and nobles began to favour reform, particularly in Angus, the Mearns,
Fife and within St. Andrews University. Leading figures included Alexander Cunningham, 5th
Earl of Glencairn and John Erskine of Dun. In 1541 Parliament passed legislation to protect
the honour of the Mass, prayer to the Virgin Mary, images of the saints, and the authority
of the pope.===Rough Wooing===James V died in 1542, leaving the infant Mary,
Queen of Scots as his heir, with the prospect of a long minority. At the beginning of the
Mary’s reign, the Scottish political nation was divided between a pro-French faction,
led by Cardinal Beaton and by the Queen’s mother, Mary of Guise; and a pro-English faction,
headed by Mary’s prospective heir James Hamilton, Earl of Arran. Initially Arran became Regent,
backed by the small “evangelical party” at court, who favoured religious reform. The
Parliamentary Act of 1543 removed the prohibition against reading the Bible in the vernacular.
A planned marriage between Mary and Edward, the son of Henry VIII of England, which had
been agreed under the Treaty of Greenwich (1543), led to a backlash in Scotland and
a coup led by Cardinal Beaton. He repudiated the reforming policies, and all consideration
of an English marriage for the Queen, angering the English. They invaded in order to enforce
the match, an action later known as the “rough wooing”, which devastated south-east Scotland.In
1546, George Wishart, a preacher who had come under the influence of Swiss reformer Huldrych
Zwingli, was arrested and burnt at the stake in St. Andrews on the orders of Cardinal Beaton.
Wishart’s supporters, who included a number of Fife lairds, assassinated Beaton soon after
and seized St. Andrews Castle, which they held for a year while under siege, before
they were defeated with the help of French forces. The survivors, including chaplain
John Knox, were condemned to be galley slaves, helping to create resentment of the French
and martyrs for the Protestant cause.In 1547, the English under Edward Seymour, 1st Duke
of Somerset renewed their invasion and defeated the Scots at Pinkie, occupied south-east Scotland
with forts at Lauder, Haddington and an outpost at Dundee. This occupation (1547–49) encouraged
the reforming cause; the English supplied books and distributed Bibles and Protestant
literature in the Lowlands. Several earls pledged themselves ‘to cause the word of God
to be taught and preached’. To counter the English, the Scots secured French help, the
price of which was the betrothal of the infant Queen to the French dauphin, the future Francis
II; she departed to France in 1548, where she was to be raised and educated. At this
point, “the policy of Henry VIII had failed completely”. French ascendancy was made absolute
over the next decade. In 1554, Arran was given the title Duke du Châtellerault and removed
from the regency in favour of Mary of Guise (the Queen Mother).===Regency of Mary of Guise===During her regency (1554–60), the Queen’s
mother ensured the predominance of France in Scottish affairs. She put Frenchmen in
charge of the treasury and the Great Seal, and the French ambassador Henri Cleutin sometimes
attended the Privy Council. At first Mary of Guise cultivated a policy of limited toleration
of Protestants, hoping to gain their support for her pro-French policies and against England,
which from 1553 was under the rule of the Catholic Mary Tudor. Hopes for reform of the
existing church helped keep the political nation unified. But the marriage of Mary Queen
of Scots to the dauphin in 1558 heightened fears that Scotland would become a French
province. Reformers were given hope by the accession, in England, of the Protestant Queen
Elizabeth in 1558, which created a confessional frontier in Great Britain.===Reforming Councils===
The Church responded to some of the criticisms being made against it. John Hamilton, Archbishop
of St Andrews, instigated a series of provincial councils (in 1549, 1552, probably in 1556,
and in 1559), modelled on the contemporaneous Council of Trent. These blamed the advance
of the Protestant heresies on “the corruption of morals and the profane lewdness of life
in churchmen of all ranks, together with crass ignorance of literature and of the liberal
arts”. In 1548, attempts were made to eliminate concubinage, clerical pluralism, clerical
trading, and non-residence, and to prohibit unqualified persons from holding church offices.
Further, the clergy were enjoined to scriptural reflection, and bishops and parsons instructed
to preach at least four times a year. Monks were to be sent to university, and theologians
appointed for each monastery, college, and cathedral. But in 1552, it was acknowledged
that little had been accomplished. Attendance at Mass was still sparse and “the inferior
clergy of this realm and the prelates have not, for the most part, attained such proficiency
in the knowledge of the Holy Scriptures as to be able by their own efforts rightly to
instruct the people in the Catholic faith and other things necessary to salvation or
to convert the erring.”===
Expansion of Protestantism===Protestantism continued to expand in this
period and became more distinct from those who wanted reform within the existing church.
Originally organised as conventicles that consisted of members of a laird’s family,
or kin group and social networks, who continued to attend the Catholic Church, Protestants
began to develop a series of privy kirks (secret churches), whose members increasingly turned
away from existing church structures. Their organisation was sufficient in 1555 for Knox
to return to Scotland. He administered a Protestant communion and carried out a preaching tour
of the privy kirks. He urged the members to reject Nicodemism, by which they held Protestant
convictions, but attended Catholic services. Despite being offered protection by the Earl
of Argyll, he returned to Geneva in 1556. In the absence of a leading clerical figure,
the leadership of the movement was taken by the few nobles who had embraced Protestantism
and a new generation that included Argyll’s son Lord Lorne, the illegitimate son of the
late King James V, Lord James Stewart (later the Earl of Moray), and Lord John Erskine.
In 1557 a “first bond” was signed by Argyll, Glencairn, Morton, Lorne, and Erskine, for
mutual support against “Sathan and all wicked power that does intend tyranny and truble
against the foresaid congregation.” This group, which eventually became known as ‘the Lords
of the Congregation’, was a direct challenge to the existing regime.==Reformation crisis (1559–60)==
On 1 January 1559 the anonymous Beggars’ Summons was posted on the doors of friaries, threatening
friars with eviction on the grounds that their property belonged to the genuine poor. This
was calculated to appeal to the passions of the populace of towns who appeared to have
particular complaints against friars. Knox returned to Scotland and preached at the church
of St. John the Baptist’s at Perth on 11 May on Christ cleansing the temple. The congregation
responded by stripping the shrines, images and altars of the church and then sacked the
local friaries and Carthusian house. The regent responded by sending troops to restore order
and Glencairn led a force to defend the town’s new Protestant status. A royal delegation,
including Argyll and James Stuart persuaded the burgh to open its gates, but the heavy
handed treatment by the regent’s forces led to a breakdown in negotiations. Argyll and
Stuart changed sides and the Lords of the Congregation now began raising their followers
for an armed conflict. A series of local reformations followed, with
Protestant minorities gaining control of various regions and burghs, often with the support
of local lairds and using intimidation, while avoiding the creation of Catholic martyrs,
to carry out a “cleansing” of friaries and churches, followed by the appointment of Protestant
preachers. Such reformations occurred in conservative Aberdeen and the ecclesiastical capital of
St. Andrews together with other eastern ports. In June, Mary of Guise responded by dispatching
a French army to St. Andrews to restore control, but it was halted by superior numbers at Cupar
Muir and forced to retreat. Edinburgh fell to the Lords in July, and Mary moved her base
to Dunbar. However, the arrival of French reinforcements of 1,800 men forced the Lords
onto the defensive and they abandoned the capital.The Lords appealed for help from England
and Mary from France. English agents managed the safe return of Earl of Arran, the eldest
son and heir of Chatelherault, allowing him to accept the leadership of the Lords. In
October the regent was declared “suspended” and replaced by a “great council of the realm”.
However, Mary of Guise’s forces continued to advance, once again threatening St. Andrews.
The situation was transformed by the arrival of the English fleet in the Firth of Forth
in January 1560, and the French retreated to the stronghold of Leith near Edinburgh.
The English and the Lords agreed further support by the Treaty of Berwick in February 1560
and an English army crossed the border to lay siege to the French in Leith. Mary of
Guise fell ill and died in June. With no sign of reinforcements, the French opened negotiations.
Under the Treaty of Edinburgh (5 July 1560) both the French and English removed their
troops from Scotland, leaving the Protestant Lords in control of the country. The Lords
accepted Mary Queen of Scots and her husband, now Francis II of France, as monarchs and
were given permission to hold a parliament, although it was not to touch the issue of
religion.==Reformation Parliament==The Scottish Parliament met in Edinburgh 1
August 1560. Fourteen earls, six bishops, nineteen lords, twenty-one abbots, twenty-two
burgh commissioners, and over a hundred lairds, claimed the right to sit. Ignoring the provisions
of the Treaty of Edinburgh, on 17 August, Parliament approved a Reformed Confession
of Faith (the Scots Confession), and on 24 August it passed three Acts that abolished
the old faith in Scotland. Under these, all previous acts not in conformity with the Reformed
Confession were annulled; the sacraments were reduced to two (Baptism and Communion) to
be performed by reformed preachers alone; the celebration of the Mass was made punishable
by a series of penalties (ultimately death) and Papal jurisdiction in Scotland was repudiated.
The Queen declined to endorse the acts that Parliament had passed and the new kirk existed
in a state of legal uncertainty.==First Book of Discipline==The Lords had intended for the parliament
to consider a Book of Reformation, that they had commissioned and which was largely the
work of Knox. However, they were unhappy with the document and established a committee of
“six Johns”, including Knox, to produce a revised version. The result of the delay was
that the document, known as the First Book of Discipline was not considered by the full
parliament, but a thinly attended convention of nobles and about 30 lairds, in January
1561 and then only approved individually and not collectively. The book contained a programme
of parish based reformation that would use the resources of the old church to pay a network
of ministers, a parish based school system, university education, and arrangements for
poor relief. However, the proposal for the use of church wealth were rejected and under
an Act of Council, which kept two-thirds in the hands of its existing owners and even
the remaining third had to be shared with the Crown. The result was an abandonment of
the educational programme, ministers remained poorly paid and the church was underfunded.==Post-Reformation church=====
Confession of faith===The Scots Confession was produced by Knox
and five colleagues in four days. Its structure parallels that of the Apostle’s Creed, with
25 chapters based around themes of the Father, Son, Church and Consummation. It remained
the standard of the Kirk until it was replaced by the Westminster Confession, negotiated
with English Parliamentary allies during the English Civil War and adopted by the Kirk
in 1647. The Confession was strongly Calvinist in tone. It emphasised the “inscrutable providence”
of God, who had determined all things. It stressed the extreme depravity of mankind,
who deserved eternal damnation and the mercy of God in selecting a portion of humanity
for salvation through grace alone. It denied transubstantiation, but retained the real
presence in the Eucharist. It largely avoided negative emotive condemnations of Catholicism,
focusing on setting out the new faith in simple language. It saw the Kirk as a “catholik”
community of, “the elect of all nations, realms, nations, tongues, Jews and Gentiles”. In 1581,
as part of a reaction to the perceived threat of Catholicism, the court signed a King’s,
or Negative Confession, probably commissioned by James VI, that much more harshly denounced
Catholicism.===Liturgy and worship===
The Reformation saw a complete transformation of religious observance. In the place of the
many holy days and festivals of the Catholic Church and the occasional observance of the
Mass, the single surviving holy day was Sunday and regular attendance and participation was
required of the laity. Latin was abandoned in favour of the vernacular. Congregational
psalm singing replaced the elaborate polyphony of trained choirs. An emphasis was put on
the Bible and the sermon, which was often longer than an hour, although many parishes,
which had no minister, would have had only a “readers service”, of psalms, prayers and
Bible readings. The Geneva Bible was widely adopted. Protestant preachers fleeing Marian
persecutions in England had brought with them Edward VI’s second Book of Common Prayer (of
1552), which was commended by the Lords of the Congregation. Knox too initially supported
it, however, before leaving Geneva, and with the encouragement of Calvin, he had written
his own Book of Common Order and it was this that was printed and approved by the General
Assembly of 1562. Enlarged, it was reprinted with the Confession and the Psalms in metre
in 1564, and it remained the standard until replaced with the Westminster Directory in
1643. A Gaelic translation of the Book of Common Order was produced in 1563, the first
book printed in Gaelic, but there would be no Gaelic Bible until the eighteenth century.===Church polity===The First Book of Discipline envisaged the
establishment of reformed ministers in each of approximately 1,080 parishes. By the end
of 1561, 240 of these places had been filled. By 1567 there were about 850 clergy and by
1574 there were just over 1,000. These were mainly concentrated in the south and east.
In the Highlands there were shortages and very few spoke the Gaelic of the local population.
The universities were unable supply sufficient trained ministers over a generation and many,
over three quarters in 1574, were holders of the junior post of readers, rather than
qualified ministers. The bulk of these were former Catholic clergy. The untidy system
of thirteen medieval dioceses was to be replaced by ten more rational districts, each to be
overseen by a superintendent. This plan was complicated by the conversion of three bishops
to Protestantism, who were allowed to remain in their posts. Few superintendents were appointed
and temporary commissioners were nominated to fill the gaps. In 1576, when the General
Assembly considered the structure of the Kirk, it recognised five offices: archbishops, bishops,
superintendents, commissioners, and visitors.Beside these posts was a system of church courts
of kirk sessions and presbyteries, which dealt with discipline and administration. Some local
sessions had existed before 1560, moderators emerged in 1563, but the presbytery not until
1580. By the 1590s Scotland was organized into about fifty presbyteries with about twenty
ministers in each. Above them stood a dozen or so synods and at the apex the general assembly.
The system of kirk sessions gave considerable power within the new kirk to local lairds,
who were able to take on the dignity and authority of an elder.===Continued reformation===In the 1560s the majority of the population
was probably still Catholic in persuasion and the Kirk would find it difficult to penetrate
the Highlands and Islands, but began a gradual process of conversion and consolidation that,
compared with reformations elsewhere, was conducted with little persecution. The monasteries
were not dissolved, but allowed to die out with their monks and before 1573 no holders
of benefices were turned out, even for refusing to conform. The focus on the parish church
as the centre of worship meant the abandonment of much of the complex religious provision
of chapelries, monasteries, and cathedrals, many of which were allowed to decay or, like
the Cathedral at St. Andrews, were mined for dressed stone to be used in local houses.==Second Reformation crisis (1567)==When her husband Francis II died in 1560,
Mary, now 19, elected to return to Scotland to take up the government. She gained an agreement
that she would be the only person to partake legally in Catholic services and did not attempt
to re-impose Catholicism on her subjects, thus angering the chief Catholic nobles. Her
six-year personal reign was marred by a series of crises, largely caused by the intrigues
and rivalries of the leading nobles. The murder of her secretary, David Riccio, was followed
by that of her unpopular second husband Lord Darnley, father of her infant son, and her
abduction by, and marriage to, the Earl of Bothwell, who was implicated in Darnley’s
murder. Opposition to Bothwell led to the formation of a coalition of nobles, who styled
themselves as the Confederate Lords. Michael Lynch describes the events of 1567 as “second
Reformation crisis”. Mary and Bothwell confronted the Lords at Carberry Hill on 15 June 1567,
but their forces melted away. He fled and she was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle. Ten
days after the confrontation at Carbury Hill, the General Assembly met in Edinburgh with
the aim of rooting out “superstition and idolatry”. The Reformation settlement of 1567 was much
more firmly Calvinist than that of 1560. The Assembly set out a programme of reform that
included the ratification of the legislation of 1560, better provision of the ministry,
new resources and manpower for the parishes, a purge of the teachers in the universities
and schools, and a closer relationship with parliament. A parliament was called in December,
which allowed the acts passed by the Reformation Parliament to be ratified. The subsequent
religious settlement would be worked out over the 1570s against a background of civil war
and unstable regencies.==Reign of James VI (1567–1625)==In July 1567, Mary was forced to abdicate
in favour of her 13-month-old son James VI. James was to be brought up a Protestant and
the government was to be run by a series of regents, beginning with Moray, until James
began to assert his independence in 1581. Mary eventually escaped and attempted to regain
the throne by force. After her defeat at the Battle of Langside in May 1568, by forces
loyal to the King’s Party, led by Moray, she took refuge in England, leaving her son in
their hands. In Scotland the King’s Party fought a civil war on behalf of the regency
against Mary’s supporters. This ended, after English intervention, with the surrender of
Edinburgh Castle in May 1573. In 1578 a Second Book of Discipline was adopted, which was
much more clearly Presbyterian in outlook.In England, Mary became a focal point for Catholic
conspirators and was eventually executed for treason in 1587 on the orders of her kinswoman
Elizabeth I. James was Calvinist in doctrine, but strongly supported episcopacy and resisted
the independence, or even right to interfere in government, of the Kirk, which became associated
with the followers of Andrew Melville, known as the Melvillians. He used his powers to
call the General Assembly where he wished, limiting the ability of more radical clergy
to attend. He paid for moderate clergy to be present, negotiated with members, and manipulated
its business in order to limit the independence of the Kirk. By 1600 he had appointed three
parliamentary bishops. By the end of his reign there were 11 bishops and diocesan episcopacy
had been restored, although there was still strong support for Presbyterianism within
the Kirk.==Catholic survival==Although officially illegal, ‘Roman’ Catholicism
survived in parts of Scotland. The hierarchy of the Church played a relatively small role
and the initiative was left to lay leaders. Where nobles or local lairds offered protection
it continued to thrive, as with Clanranald on South Uist, or in the north-east where
the Earl of Huntly was the most important figure. In these areas Catholic sacraments
and practices were maintained with relative openness. Members of the nobility were probably
reluctant to pursue each other over matters of religion because of strong personal and
social ties. An English report in 1600 suggested that a third of nobles and gentry were still
Catholic in inclination. In most of Scotland, Catholicism became an underground faith in
private households, connected by ties of kinship. This reliance on the household meant that
women often became important as the upholders and transmitters of the faith, such as in
the case of Lady Fernihurst in the Borders. They transformed their households into centres
of religious activity and offered places of safety for priests.Because the Reformation
took over the existing structures and assets of the Church, any attempted recovery by the
Catholic hierarchy was extremely difficult. After the collapse of Mary’s cause in the
civil wars in the 1570s, and any hope of a national restoration of the old faith, the
hierarchy began to treat Scotland as a mission area. The leading order of the Counter-reformation,
the newly founded Jesuits, initially took relatively little interest in Scotland as
a target of missionary work. Their effectiveness was limited by rivalries between different
orders at Rome. The initiative was taken by a small group of Scots connected with the
Crichton family, who had supplied the bishops of Dunkeld. They joined the Jesuit order and
returned to attempt conversions. Their focus was mainly on the court, which led them into
involvement in a series of complex political plots and entanglements. The majority of surviving
Scottish lay followers were largely ignored.==Impact=====
Education===The humanist concern with widening education
was shared by the Protestant reformers, with a desire for a godly people replacing the
aim of having educated citizens. The First Book of Discipline set out a plan for a school
in every parish, but this proved financially impossible. In the burghs the old schools
were maintained, with the song schools and a number of new foundations becoming reformed
grammar schools or ordinary parish schools. Schools were supported by a combination of
kirk funds, contributions from local heritors or burgh councils and parents that could pay.
They were inspected by kirk sessions, who checked for the quality of teaching and doctrinal
purity. There were also large number of unregulated “adventure schools”, which sometimes fulfilled
a local need and sometimes took pupils away from the official schools. Outside of the
established burgh schools, masters often combined their positions with other employment, particularly
minor posts within the Kirk, such as clerk. At their best, the curriculum included catechism,
Latin, French, Classical literature and sports.Scotland’s universities underwent a series of reforms
associated with Andrew Melville, who returned from Geneva to become principal of the University
of Glasgow in 1574. A distinguished linguist, philosopher and poet, he had trained in Paris
and studied law at Poitiers, before moving to Geneva and developing an interest in Protestant
theology. Influenced by the anti-Aristotelian Petrus Ramus, he placed an emphasis on simplified
logic and elevated languages and sciences to the same status as philosophy, allowing
accepted ideas in all areas to be challenged. He introduced new specialist teaching staff,
replacing the system of “regenting”, where one tutor took the students through the entire
arts curriculum. Metaphysics were abandoned and Greek became compulsory in the first year,
followed by Aramaic, Syriac and Hebrew, launching a new fashion for ancient and biblical languages.
Glasgow had probably been declining as a university before his arrival, but students now began
to arrive in large numbers. He assisted in the reconstruction of Marischal College, Aberdeen,
and in order to do for St Andrews what he had done for Glasgow, he was appointed Principal
of St Mary’s College, St Andrews, in 1580. The University of Edinburgh developed out
of public lectures that were established in the town in the 1540s on law, Greek, Latin
and philosophy, under the patronage of Mary of Guise. The “Tounis College” become the
University of Edinburgh in 1582. The results of these changes were a revitalisation of
all Scottish universities, which were now producing a quality of education the equal
of that offered anywhere in Europe.===Literature===Medieval Scotland probably had its own Mystery
plays, often performed by craft guilds, like one described as ludi de ly haliblude and
staged at Aberdeen in 1440 and 1445 and which was probably connected with the feast of Corpus
Christi, but no texts are extant. Legislation was enacted against folk plays in 1555, and
against liturgical plays (“clerk-plays or comedies based on the canonical scriptures”)
in 1575 by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. However, attempts to ban folk
plays were more leniently applied and less successful that once assumed. They continued
into the seventeenth century, with parishioners in Aberdeen reproved for parading and dancing
in the street with bells at weddings and Yule in 1605, Robin Hood and May plays at Kelso
in 1611 and Yuletide guising at Perth in 1634. The Kirk also allowed some plays, particularly
in schools, when they served their own ends for education, as in the comedy about the
Prodigal Son permitted at St. Andrews in 1574.More formal plays included those of James Wedderburn,
who wrote anti-Catholic tragedies and comedies in Scots around 1540, before he was forced
to flee into exile. These included the Beheading of Johne the Baptist and the Historie of Dyonisius
the Tyraonne, which were performed at Dundee. David Lyndsay (c. 1486 –1555), diplomat
and the head of the Lyon Court, was a prolific poet and dramatist. He produced an interlude
at Linlithgow Palace for the king and queen thought to be a version of his play The Thrie
Estaitis in 1540, which satirised the corruption of church and state, and which is the only
complete play to survive from before the Reformation. George Buchanan (1506–82) was major influence
on Continental theatre with plays such as Jepheths and Baptistes, which influenced Pierre
Corneille and Jean Racine and through them the neo-classical tradition in French drama,
but his impact in Scotland was limited by his choice of Latin as a medium. The anonymous
The Maner of the Cyring of ane Play (before 1568) and Philotus (published in London in
1603), are isolated examples of surviving plays. The later is a vernacular Scots comedy
of errors, probably designed for court performance for Mary, Queen of Scots or James VI. The
same system of professional companies of players and theatres that developed in England in
this period was absent in Scotland, but James VI signalled his interest in drama by arranging
for a company of English players to erect a playhouse and perform in 1599.The Kirk also
discouraged poetry that was not devotional in nature. Nevertheless, poets from this period
included Richard Maitland of Lethington (1496–1586), who produced meditative and satirical verses;
John Rolland (fl. 1530–75), who wrote allegorical satires and courtier and minister Alexander
Hume (c. 1556 –1609), whose corpus of work includes nature poetry and epistolary verse.
Alexander Scott’s (?1520–82/3) use of short verse designed to be sung to music, opened
the way for the Castalian poets of James VI’s adult reign.===Art===Scotland’s ecclesiastical art paid a heavy
toll as a result of Reformation iconoclasm, with the almost total loss of medieval stained
glass and religious sculpture and paintings. The only significant surviving pre-Reformation
stained glass in Scotland is a window of four roundels in the St. Magdalen Chapel of Cowgate,
Edinburgh, completed in 1544. Wood carving can be seen at King’s College, Aberdeen and
Dunblane Cathedral. In the West Highlands, where there had been a hereditary caste of
monumental sculptors, the uncertainty and loss of patronage caused by the rejection
of monuments in the Reformation meant that they moved into another branches of the Gaelic
learned orders or took up other occupations. The lack of transfer of carving skills is
noticeable in the decline in quality when gravestones were next commissioned from the
start of the seventeenth century.According to N. Prior, the nature of the Scottish Reformation
may have had wider effects, limiting the creation of a culture of public display and meaning
that art was channelled into more austere forms of expression with an emphasis on private
and domestic restraint. The loss of ecclesiastical patronage that resulted from the Reformation,
meant that native craftsmen and artists turned to secular patrons. One result of this was
the flourishing of Scottish Renaissance painted ceilings and walls, with large numbers of
private houses of burgesses, lairds and lords gaining often highly detailed and coloured
patterns and scenes, of which over a hundred examples survive. These were undertaken by
unnamed Scottish artists using continental pattern books that often led to the incorporation
of humanist moral and philosophical symbolism, with elements that call on heraldry, piety,
classical myths and allegory. The earliest surviving example is at the Hamilton palace
of Kinneil, West Lothian, decorated in the 1550s for the then regent the James Hamilton,
Earl of Arran. Other examples include the ceiling at Prestongrange House, undertaken
in 1581 for Mark Kerr, Commendator of Newbattle, and the long gallery at Pinkie House, painted
for Alexander Seaton, Earl of Dunfermline in 1621.===Architecture===The Reformation revolutionised church architecture
in Scotland. Calvinists rejected ornamentation in places of worship, seeing no need for elaborate
buildings divided up for the purpose of ritual. This resulted in the widespread destruction
of Medieval church furnishings, ornaments and decoration. New churches were built and
existing churches adapted for reformed services, particularly by placing the pulpit centrally
in the church, as preaching was at the centre of worship. Many of the earliest buildings
were simple gabled rectangles, a style that continued into the seventeenth century, as
at Dunnottar Castle in the 1580s, Greenock’s Old West Kirk (1591) and Durness (1619). These
churches often have windows on the south wall (and none on the north), which became a characteristic
of Reformation kirks. There were continuities with pre-Reformation materials, with some
churches using rubble for walls, as at Kemback in Fife (1582). Others employed dressed stone
and a few added wooden steeples, as at Burntisland (1592). The church of Greyfriars, Edinburgh,
built between 1602 and 1620, used a rectangular layout with a largely Gothic form, but that
at Dirleton (1612), had a more sophisticated classical style. A variation of the rectangular
church developed in post-Reformation Scotland, and often used when adapting existing churches,
was the “T”-shaped plan, which allowed the maximum number of parishioners to be near
the pulpit. Examples can be seen at Kemback and Prestonpans after 1595. This plan continued
to be used into the seventeenth century as at Weem (1600), Anstruther Easter, Fife (1634–44)
and New Cumnock, Ayreshire (1657). In the seventeenth century a Greek cross plan was
used for churches such as Cawdor (1619) and Fenwick (1643). In most of these cases one
arm of the cross would have been closed off as a laird’s aisle, meaning that they were
in effect “T”-plan churches.===Music===The Reformation had a severe impact on church
music. The song schools of the abbeys, cathedrals and collegiate churches were closed down,
choirs disbanded, music books and manuscripts destroyed and organs removed from churches.
The Lutheranism that influenced the early Scottish Reformation attempted to accommodate
Catholic musical traditions into worship, drawing on Latin hymns and vernacular songs.
The most important product of this tradition in Scotland was The Gude and Godlie Ballatis
(1567), which were spiritual satires on popular ballads composed by the brothers James, John
and Robert Wedderburn. Never adopted by the Kirk, they nevertheless remained popular and
were reprinted from the 1540s to the 1620s.Later the Calvinism that came to dominate the Scottish
Reformation was much more hostile to Catholic musical tradition and popular music, placing
an emphasis on what was biblical, which meant the Psalms. The Scottish Psalter of 1564 was
commissioned by the Assembly of the Church. It drew on the work of French musician Clément
Marot, Calvin’s contributions to the Strasbourg Psalter of 1539 and English writers, particularly
the 1561 edition of the Psalter produced by William Whittingham for the English congregation
in Geneva. The intention was to produce individual tunes for each psalm, but of 150 psalms, 105
had proper tunes and in the seventeenth century, common tunes, which could be used for psalms
with the same metre, became more frequent. Because whole congregations would now all
sing these psalms, unlike the trained choirs who had sung the many parts of polyphonic
hymns, there was a need for simplicity and most church compositions were confined to
homophonic settings.During his personal reign James VI attempted to revive the song schools,
with an act of parliament passed in 1579, demanding that councils of the largest burghs
set up “ane sang scuill with ane maister sufficient and able for insturctioun of the yowth in
the said science of musik”. Five new schools were opened within four years of the act coming
into force, and by 1633 there were at least twenty-five. Most of those burghs without
song schools made provision within their grammar schools. Polyphony was incorporated into editions
of the Psalter from 1625, but usually with the congregation singing the melody and trained
singers the contra-tenor, treble and bass parts. However, the triumph of the Presbyterians
in the National Covenant of 1638 led to an end of polyphony, and a new psalter in common
metre, without tunes, was published in 1650. In 1666 The Twelve Tunes for the Church of
Scotland, composed in Four Parts (which actually contained 14 tunes), designed for use with
the 1650 Psalter, was first published in Aberdeen. It would go through five editions by 1720.
By the late seventeenth century these two works had become the basic corpus of the psalmody
sung in the Kirk.===Women===Early modern Scotland was a patriarchal society,
in which men had total authority over women. From the 1560s the post-Reformation marriage
service underlined this by stating that a wife “is in subjection and under governance
of her husband, so long as they both continue alive”. In politics the theory of patriarchy
was complicated by regencies led by Margaret Tudor and Mary of Guise and by the advent
of a regnant queen in Mary, Queen of Scots from 1561. Concerns over this threat to male
authority were exemplified by John Knox’s The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the
Monstruous Regiment of Women (1558), which advocated the deposition of all reigning queens.
Most of the political nation took a pragmatic view of the situation, accepting Mary as queen,
but the strains that this paradox created may have played a part in the later difficulties
of the reign.Before the Reformation, the extensive marriage bars for kinship meant that most
noble marriages necessitated a papal dispensation, which could later be used as grounds for annulment
if the marriage proved politically or personally inconvenient, although there was no divorce
as such. Separation from bed and board was allowed in exceptional circumstances, usually
adultery. Under the reformed Kirk, divorce was allowed on grounds of adultery, or of
desertion. Scotland was one of the first countries to allow desertion as legal grounds for divorce
and, unlike England, divorce cases were initiated relatively far down the social scale.After
the Reformation the contest between the widespread belief in the limited intellectual and moral
capacity of women and the desire for women to take personal moral responsibility, particularly
as wives and mothers, intensified. In Protestantism this necessitated an ability to learn and
understand the catechism and even to be able to independently read the Bible, but most
commentators, even those that tended to encourage the education of girls, thought they should
not receive the same academic education as boys. In the lower ranks of society, women
benefited from the expansion of the parish schools system that took place after the Reformation,
but were usually outnumbered by boys, often taught separately, for a shorter time and
to a lower level. They were frequently taught reading, sewing and knitting, but not writing.
Female illiteracy rates based on signatures among female servants were around 90 per cent
from the late seventeenth to the early eighteenth centuries, and perhaps 85 per cent for women
of all ranks by 1750, compared with 35 per cent for men. Among the nobility there were
many educated and cultured women, of which Queen Mary is the most obvious example.Church
going played an important part in the lives of many women. Women were largely excluded
from the administration of the Kirk, but when heads of households voted on the appointment
of a new minister some parishes allowed women in that position to participate. In the post-Reformation
period there was a criminalisation of women. Women were disciplined in kirk sessions and
civil courts for stereotypical offences including scolding and prostitution, which were seen
as deviant, rather than criminal. These changing attitudes may partly explain the witch hunts
that occurred after the Reformation and in which women were the largest group of victims.===Popular religion===Scottish Protestantism was focused on the
Bible, which was seen as infallible and the major source of moral authority. Many Bibles
were large, illustrated and highly valuable objects. The Genevan translation was commonly
used until in 1611 the Kirk adopted the Authorised King James Version and the first Scots version
was printed in Scotland in 1633, but the Geneva Bible continued to be employed into the seventeenth
century. Bibles often became the subject of superstitions, being used in divination. Kirk
discipline was fundamental to Reformed Protestantism and it probably reached a high-water mark
in the seventeenth century. Kirk sessions were able to apply religious sanctions, such
as excommunication and denial of baptism, to enforce godly behaviour and obedience.
In more difficult cases of immoral behaviour they could work with the local magistrate,
in a system modelled on that employed in Geneva. Public occasions were treated with mistrust
and from the later seventeenth century there were efforts by kirk sessions to stamp out
activities such as well-dressing, bonfires, guising, penny weddings, and dancing.In the
late Middle Ages there were a handful of prosecutions for harm done through witchcraft, but the
passing of the Witchcraft Act 1563 made witchcraft, or consulting with witches, capital crimes.
The first major series of trials under the new act were the North Berwick witch trials,
beginning in 1589, in which James VI played a major part as “victim” and investigator.
He became interested in witchcraft and published a defence of witch-hunting in the Daemonologie
in 1597, but he appears to have become increasingly sceptical and eventually took steps to limit
prosecutions. An estimated 4,000 to 6,000 people, mostly from the Scottish Lowlands,
were tried for witchcraft in this period; a much higher rate than for neighbouring England.
There were major series of trials in 1590–91, 1597, 1628–31, 1649–50 and 1661–62.
Seventy-five per cent of the accused were women and modern estimates indicate that over
1,500 persons were executed.===National identity===The Kirk that developed after 1560 claimed
to represent all of Scotland. It became the subject of national pride, and was often compared
with the less clearly reformed church in neighbouring England. Jane Dawson suggests that the loss
of national standing in the contest for dominance of Britain between England and France suffered
by the Scots, may have led them to stress their religious achievements. A theology developed
that saw the kingdom as in a covenant relationship with God. Many Scots saw their country as
a new Israel and themselves as a holy people engaged in a struggle between the forces of
Christ and Antichrist, the latter being identified with the resurgent papacy and the Roman Catholic
Church. This view was reinforced by events elsewhere that demonstrated that Reformed
religion was under threat, such as the 1572 Massacre of St Bartholomew in France and the
Spanish Armada in 1588. These views were popularised through the first Protestant histories, such
as Knox’s History of the Reformation and George Buchanan’s Rerum Scoticarum Historia. This
period also saw a growth of a patriotic literature facilitated by the rise of popular printing.
Published editions of medieval poetry by John Barbour and Robert Henryson and the plays
of David Lyndsay all gained a new audience.==See also==English Reformation
History of Christianity in Scotland History of Scotland==Notes====
References and further reading==Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004)
online; short scholarly biographies of all the major people
Barrell, A. D. M., Medieval Scotland (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), ISBN 0-521-58602-X.
Bawcutt P. J., and Williams, J. H., A Companion to Medieval Scottish Poetry (Woodbridge: Brewer,
2006), ISBN 1-84384-096-0. Baxter, J. R., “Music, ecclesiastical”, in
M. Lynch, ed., The Oxford Companion to Scottish History (Oxford: Oxford University Press,
2001), ISBN 0-19-211696-7. Brown, I., Scottish Theatre: Diversity, Language,
Continuity (Rodopi, 2013), ISBN 94-012-0994-4. Brown, I., “Introduction: a lively tradition
and collective amnesia”, in I. Brown, ed., The Edinburgh Companion to Scottish Drama
(Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2011), ISBN 0-7486-4107-6.
Brown, I., Clancy, T., Manning, S. and Pittock, M., eds, The Edinburgh History of Scottish
Literature: Enlightenment, Britain and Empire (1707–1918) (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University
Press, 2007), ISBN 0-7486-2481-3. Brown, K. M., “In Search of the Godly Magistrate
in Reformation Scotland”, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 40 (1), (1989), pp. 553–81.
Brown, K. M., Noble Society in Scotland: Wealth, Family and Culture from the Reformation to
the Revolutions (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004), ISBN 0-7486-1299-8.
Brown, K. M., and MacDonald, A. R., eds, Parliament in Context, 1235–1707 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh
University Press, 2010), ISBN 0-7486-1486-9. Brown, S. J., “Religion and society to c.
1900”, in T. M. Devine and J. Wormald, eds, The Oxford Handbook of Modern Scottish History
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), ISBN 0-19-956369-1.
Burleigh, J. H. S., A Church History of Scotland (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1960), ISBN
0-19-213921-5. Carpenter, S., “Scottish drama until 1650”,
in I. Brown, ed., The Edinburgh Companion to Scottish Drama (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University
Press, 2011), ISBN 0-7486-4107-6. Cross, F. L. and Livingstone, E. A., eds,
“Scotland” in The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, pp. 1471–73. (Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 1997), ISBN 0-19-211655-X. Davidson, C., Festivals and Plays in Late
Medieval Britain (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), ISBN 0-7546-6052-4.
Dawson, J. E. A., Scotland Re-Formed, 1488–1587 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007),
ISBN 0-7486-1455-9. Dennison, E. P., “Women: 1 to 1700”, in M.
Lynch, ed., The Oxford Companion to Scottish History (Oxford: Oxford University Press,
2001), ISBN 0-19-211696-7. Edwards, K. A., “Witchcraft in Tudor and Stuart
Scotland”, in K. Cartwright, ed., A Companion to Tudor Literature Blackwell Companions to
Literature and Culture (Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, 2010), ISBN 1-4051-5477-2.
Erskine, C., “John Knox, George Buccanan and Scots prose” in A. Hadfield, ed., The Oxford
Handbook of English Prose 1500–1640 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), ISBN 0-19-958068-5.
Ewen, E., “The early modern family” in T. M. Devine and J. Wormald, eds, The Oxford
Handbook of Modern Scottish History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), ISBN 0-19-956369-1.
Fletcher, R. A., The Barbarian Conversion: From Paganism to Christianity (University
of California Press, 1999), ISBN 0-520-21859-0. Glover, K., Elite Women and Polite Society
in Eighteenth-Century Scotland (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2011), ISBN 1-84383-681-5.
Graham, M. F., “Scotland”, in A. Pettegree, ed., The Reformation World (London: Routledge,
2000), ISBN 0-415-16357-9. Grant, A., and Stringer, K. J., Uniting the
Kingdom?: the Making of British History (Psychology Press, 1995), ISBN 3-03910-948-0.
Hartnoll, P., ed., The Oxford Companion to the Theatre (Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1993), ISBN 0-19-282574-7. Van Heijnsbergen, T., “Culture: 9 Renaissance
and Reformation: poetry to 1603”, in M. Lynch, ed., The Oxford Companion to Scottish History
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), ISBN 0-19-211696-7.
Henderson, G. D., Religious Life in Seventeenth-Century Scotland (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 2011), ISBN 0-521-24877-9. Houston, R. A., Scottish Literacy and the
Scottish Identity: Illiteracy and Society in Scotland and Northern England, 1600–1800
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), ISBN 0-521-89088-8.
Houston, R. A. and Whyte, I. D., “Introduction” in R. A. Houston and I. D. Whyte, eds, Scottish
Society, 1500–1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), ISBN 0-521-89167-1.
Kellar, C., Scotland, England & the Reformation: 1534–61 (Oxford: Oxford University Press,
2003), ISBN 0-19-926670-0. Kilday, A.-M., Women and Violent Crime in
Enlightenment Scotland (London: Boydell & Brewer, 2007), ISBN 0-86193-287-0.
Kirk, J., Patterns of Reform: Continuity and Change in the Reformation Kirk (Edinburgh:
T&T Clark, 1989), ISBN 0-567-09505-3. Kirk, J., “Reformation, Scottish” in M. Nigel
M. de S. Cameron, ed., Dictionary of Scottish Church History and Theology (Edinburgh: T
& T Clark, 1993), ISBN 0-567-09650-5. Kyle, R. G., “The Christian Commonwealth:
John Knox’s Vision for Scotland”, Journal of Religious History 16 (3), (1991), pp. 247–259.
Lamont, S., The Swordbearer: John Knox and the European Reformation (London: Hodder and
Stoughton, 1991), ISBN 0-340-55240-9. Lynch, M., Scotland: A New History (London:
Pimlico, 1992), ISBN 0-7126-9893-0. Lynch, M., “Reformation” in M. Lynch, ed.,
The Oxford Companion to Scottish History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), ISBN 0-19-211696-7.
MacDonald, I. R., The Jacobean Kirk, 1567–1625: Sovereignty, Liturgy and Polity (Aldershot:
Ashgate, 1998), ISBN 1-85928-373-X. Mackie, J. D., Lenman, B. and Parker, G.,
A History of Scotland (London: Penguin, 1991), ISBN 0-14-013649-5.
Mason, R., “Renaissance and Reformation: the sixteenth century”, in J. Wormald, Scotland:
A History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), ISBN 0-19-162243-5.
McGoldrick, J. E., Luther’s Scottish Connection (Associated University Press, 1989), ISBN
0-8386-3357-9. McGovern, M., ed., Chambers Biographical Dictionary
(Edinburgh: Chambers, 7th edn., 2002), ISBN 0-550-10051-2.
McNeill, P. G. B., and MacQueen, H. L., eds., Atlas of Scottish History to 1707 (Edinburgh:
The Scottish Medievalists, 1996), ISBN 0-9503904-1-0. Macquarrie, A., Medieval Scotland: Kinship
and Nation (Thrupp: Sutton, 2004), ISBN 0-7509-2977-4. Mitchison, R., Lordship to Patronage, Scotland
1603–1745 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1983), ISBN 0-7486-0233-X.
Mitchison, R., A History of Scotland (London: Routledge, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-415-27880-5.
Mullan, D. G. Scottish Puritanism, 1590–1638 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), ISBN
0-19-826997-8. Munro, G., “‘Sang schools’ and ‘music schools’:
music education in Scotland 1560–1650”, in S. F. Weiss, R. E. Murray, Jr., and C.
J. Cyrus, eds Music Education in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance (Indiana University
Press, 2010), ISBN 0-253-00455-1. Palliser, D. M., The Cambridge Urban History
of Britain: 600–1540 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), ISBN 0-521-44461-6.
Park, J-E., “John Knox’s Doctrine of Predestination and Its Practical Application for His Ecclesiology”,
Puritan Reformed Journal, 5 (2), (2013), pp. 65–90.
Peters, C., Women in Early Modern Britain, 1450–1640 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan,
2004), ISBN 0-333-63358-X. Reid, S. J., Humanism and Calvinism: Andrew
Melville and the Universities of Scotland, 1560–1625 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2013), ISBN
1-4094-8202-2. Ryrie, A., The Origins of the Scottish Reformation
(Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2006), ISBN 0-7190-7105-4.
Spicer, A., “Architecture”, in A. Pettegree, ed., The Reformation World (London: Routledge,
2000), ISBN 0-415-16357-9. Scott, H., ed., Scotland: A Concise Cultural
History (Mainstream, 1993), ISBN 1-85158-581-8. Spicer, A., Calvinist Churches in Early Modern
Europe (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2007), ISBN 0-7190-5487-7.
Spinks, B. D., A Communion Sunday in Scotland ca. 1780: Liturgies and Sermons (Scarecrow
Press, 2009), ISBN 0-8108-6981-0. Thomas, A., “The Renaissance”, in T. M. Devine
and J. Wormald, eds, The Oxford Handbook of Modern Scottish History (Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 2012), ISBN 0-19-162433-0. Todd, M., The Culture of Protestantism in
Early Modern Scotland (New Haven, CT.: Yale University Press, 2002), ISBN 0-300-09234-2.
Webster, B., Medieval Scotland: the Making of an Identity (New York, NY: St. Martin’s
Press, 1997), ISBN 0-333-56761-7. Willson, D. H., King James VI & I (London:
Jonathan Cape Ltd, [1956] 1963), ISBN 0-224-60572-0. Wormald, J., Court, Kirk and Community: Scotland,
1470–1625 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1991), ISBN 0-7486-0276-3.
Wormald, J., Mary, Queen of Scots: Politics, Passion and a Kingdom Lost (Tauris Parke Paperbacks,
2001), ISBN 1-86064-588-7.===Primary sources===
Bain, Joseph, ed., Calendar of the State Papers relating to Scotland and Mary Queen of Scots
1547–1603, vol. 1, H.M. General Register House Edinburgh, vol. 1, (1898)==External links==
BBC Scottish History