This video explains the underlying structure
of the service catalog—including request levels… … workflows, approvals, and fulfillment tasks… … and demonstrates how they interact to deliver goods and services. Linked time codes for these topics appear
in the YouTube description for this video. When a user orders from the Service Catalog,
the system creates records at three levels: The top level is the request—or REQ—record,
which corresponds to the cart or order number. This applies to catalog items—not to record producers. A request can contain just one item…or multiple
items—for example, a computer, mouse, and keyboard. These requested item—or RITM—records in
the system comprise the second level. Each item in a request has a separate RITM record because the fulfillment tasks differ from one item to the next… … and so do the people performing those tasks. Individual requested items are fulfilled independently of one another. Service catalog task—or SCTASK—records… … form the third level and specify work to be completed by particular groups as part of the overall request fulfillment process. This is where the actual work gets done. Service catalog workflows run behind the scenes to manage the process of approving and fulfilling the request. For example, our organization requires approval
for every request whose total value exceeds $1,000. And here’s where that’s handled in the
Service Catalog Request workflow. After that’s approved, the RITM-level workflow kicks in to handle item approvals—if required—and fulfillment. This is the Service Catalog Item Request workflow
for the Standard Laptop. Tasks to be completed at the SCTASK level
are specified in the workflow. Each task represents work to be done by a specific group… … as part of the overall request fulfillment process. Here’s where these tasks were generated
in the workflow. Now let’s see how these components work
together in an instance to fulfill requests. We’re logged in as a fulfiller—someone
who has the itil role required to fulfill requests. Here’s a request that contains three items. All of these are waiting for approval. That’s because this workflow is running
at the request level. And even though several items in this order
individually cost less than $1,000… … the request requires approval because the whole order
value exceeds $1000. This workflow is provided in the base system
and is active by default. You can modify it to adhere to your organization’s
approval policy. Approval has been requested and assigned to
the group, Catalog Request Approvers>$1000. This group has only one member, Sophia Lewis. And approval for this request has been assigned to her. After receiving email notification of the requested approval, Sophia logs in to review the request. She can review items… …and deny some while accepting others. It’s a good idea to leave comments—to explain why—when rejecting an individual item or the whole request. But in this case, she approves all items. Later, when we log in as the fulfiller to check on the request, we see that it has been approved… …And the approval workflow at the request level is complete. At this point, each requested item follows
its own workflow. The mouse and keyboard are both in the Fulfillment stage…. …But the laptop still needs two approvals
at the requested item level. The requested item record shows that we’re
waiting for department head approval. Here’s the workflow for this requested item. We’re currently at the department head approval
stage, and when that’s done, we need CIO approval. After we get that, order fulfillment begins. Here’s the department head approver. The CIO approver won’t be listed here until
after the department head approves it. There aren’t any catalog tasks here yet. Those won’t appear until all the approvals are complete. Meanwhile, we can start work on these other
requested items. This one is in the Fulfillment stage… …because its workflow doesn’t have any
additional approvals. Here’s our first fulfillment task. Let’s assign it to the logged-in user. The Short description and Description fields
specify the task and provide instructions to carry it out. The keyboard was in stock, so we’ll note
that here and close this task. The date and time of completion are noted
in the task record. And the next task is displayed. While working in the requested item record,
we can look back at the Request record… … where the system updates the stages to reflect where
we are in the fulfillment process. These are also updated in the Service Portal,
so that the user can keep tabs on the request. Tasks are completed, in sequence… …until they’re all done. The workflow automatically marks individual
tasks completed as fulfillers perform and close them. At this point, the workflow is complete… …And the system has automatically set the Stage to Completed and the State to Closed Complete in the requested item record. This requested item is completed…. But other items from this request are still being fulfilled individually, according to their own workflows. And the request remains open until all requested
items have been fulfilled. At this point, we’ve completed both the
keyboard and mouse requested items. And the laptop request has been approved. So let’s get busy with fulfillment on that. Here’s our first task. List editing is enabled on this instance,
so we can assign it to the logged-in user right here. We’re supposed to pull the item from stock
or order it from the vendor. And here are additional instructions to follow
if it has to be ordered. But these don’t apply… …because the laptop was in stock. So we note that here, close this task, and
start on the next task. This one’s assigned to the Field Services group. Each task can be assigned to a different group
and to a specific member of that group. In our case, Lacy belongs to both of these groups… … but in some organizations, these tasks would be carried out by different people. We perform the task and close it. The requested item record reflects that it’s completed. That was the last task for this item. And now that all requested items are closed
complete, the request is also closed complete. For more information, please consult our product
documentation, knowledge base, or podcast. Or ask a question in the ServiceNow Community.