33
ad forty days after his resurrection Jesus Christ ascends into heaven he
leaves behind eleven apostles commissioning them to make disciples of
all nations baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the
Holy Spirit there were only 500 disciples in the world all of them
located in the remote riman province of Judea this is the story of how the
gospel spread from five hundred disciples in Jerusalem to the whole
world nine days after the Ascension the day of Pentecost the Twelve Apostles are
praying together with Mary the mother of Jesus
suddenly the Holy Spirit descends upon them and Peter preaches to the people of
Jerusalem three thousand people are converted the church is born people from
all across the known world are present in Jerusalem to hear Peters speech in
acts 8 Philip while in Gaza shares the gospel with the eunuch of the royal
court of Ethiopia the eunuch believes the gospel and is baptized he returns to
Ethiopia to spread the good news Philip continues his preaching in Caesarea
maritima on the Mediterranean coast in Acts 11 persecuted disciples in
Jerusalem flee as far as Phoenicia Cyprus and Antioch where they spread the
gospel Antioch is the third largest city in the Roman Empire after Rome and
Alexandria in acts 13 and 14 Paul and Barnabus
spread the gospel in Cyprus Pamphylia and southern Galatia following the
Council of Jerusalem in acts 15 Paul sets out on his second missionary
journey from Antioch preaching the gospel in his native Silesia before
moving on to Macedonia and Greece on his return home he visits Ephesus the
largest city in the Roman province of Asia in modern-day Turkey and the fourth
largest city in the Roman Empire in acts 18 to 21 Paul sets out from Antioch to
visit the churches he had established across Galatia Asia Macedonia and Greece
before returning to Jerusalem in acts 27 Paul has taken under guard by Roman
soldiers from Judea to Rome after leaving Crete the ship has lost to a
storm but miraculously lands of Malta in acts 28 from where Paul makes his final
journey to Rome the narrative history of the Bible ends in acts 28 with Paul
teaching the faith in Rome tradition tells us of the journeys of the other
apostles st. James the older brother of John the Evangelist preaches the gospel
in Spain he returns to Jerusalem where in acts 12 is run through with the sword
by Herod Agrippa Philip spritz the gospel in Asia where
he is crucified upside down Bartholomew travels to India after sharing the
gospel there he travels to the kingdom of Armenia the location of Mount Ararat
where he is skinned alive and beheaded Thomas who doubted the resurrection of
Jesus preaches in the kingdoms of Austria and Armenia before traveling to
India where he preaches in Punjab and mylapore he is stabbed to death by Hindu
priests near Madras Mathew stays in Palestine where he writes his gospel in
Hebrew he eventually moves to Ethiopia where he is martyred Simon and Jude
preach in Tessa Fong capsule of the Parthian Empire where they are said to
converse 60,000 believers before returning to sue an air modern-day
Beirut in Syria where they are martyred Matthias who was chosen to replace the
apostle Judas evangelizes Armenia and the north shore of the Black Sea
he returns to Jerusalem and is stoned to death st. James the just stays in
Jerusalem and prays in the temple every day finally an angry mob throws him off
the top of the temple and stones and clubs him to death shortly thereafter
Jerusalem revolts against the Roman Empire the armies of Vespasian march on
Jerusalem and completely destroy it including the temple in 70 AD
Andrew the brother of Simon Peter spreads the gospel as far north as
Crimea and present-day Ukraine before preaching in Byzantium present-day
Constantinople and finally arriving in the city of Patras in the province of
akia present-day Greece where he is crucified on an axe shaped cross as he
deemed himself unworthy to be crucified on the same type of cross as Jesus Simon
Peter leaves Jerusalem following the council in acts 15 and becomes the first
Bishop of Antioch where he stays for eight years
he then preaches in Asia before arriving in Rome Simon Magus who in acts 8 had
attempted to buy the gift of laying on hands follows Peter and his travels
across the world performing magic tricks to convince people that he not Jesus is
the true Savior Simon Magus teaches his followers that he is the true God who
had revealed himself as the Father in Samaria the son in Judea and now the
Holy Spirit to the Gentiles Simon Magus becomes known as the father of all
heretics those who try to lead the faithful astray from the sound teaching
of Simon Peter Simon Magus also taught that his followers would be saved by
grace alone without the need for good works because in his teaching the
designation of works as good or bad was an arbitrary construct invented by
fallen angels at Rome Simon Peter and Simon Magus are brought before Emperor
Nero while the Apostle Paul prays for Simon Peter Simon Magus performs a magic
trick where his lifted into the air by demons
however Simon Peter commands the demons to release him and Simon Magus falls to
his death Simon Peter sends his disciple marked
the Evangelist to Alexandria Egypt the second-largest city in the world mark
becomes Alexandria’s first bishop emperor nero blames christians for the
Great Fire of Rome in the year 64 and slaughters the Christians in Rome the
Apostles Peter and Paul are martyred Peter is crucified upside down on
Vatican Hill because he deems himself unworthy to be crucified in the same
manner as Jesus Saint John the Evangelist
is thrown into a cauldron of boiling oil in Rome but is unharmed he is then
banished to the island of Patmos where he receives the vision of Revelation
after he is released from exile Saint John resides in Ephesus his last words
are said to be little children loved one another
the Apostles established churches throughout the Mediterranean world led
by the three patron C’s of Rome Alexandria and Antioch from these seas
missionaries spread the gospel to the whole world Carthage in North Africa
along with Gaul and England were converted by missionaries from Rome
after the Apostles died their disciples known as the Apostolic fathers continue
to lead the church around the Year 90 hope Clement the first of Rome writes to
the Church of Corinth rebuking certain instigators who had rebelled against the
church’s presbytery sheis patriarch of Antioch is condemned to be fed to beasts
in the Colosseum in Rome early in the second century on his journey he writes
letters to churches throughout the Mediterranean encouraging them in the
faith Saint Polycarp Bishop of Smyrna in Asia near Ephesus was a disciple of st.
John the Evangelist he was cast into a fire in 155 when the fire failed to harm
him he was run through with a sword the second century would see the successors
of the Apostles seek not only to justify Christianity against arguments from a
skeptical Greek world but also rebuked heretics who sought to teach a distorted
twisted version of the gospel valentineís attempted to lead astray the
churches at Alexandria and Rome Valentine is taught that only his
disciples he received a special type of secret knowledge called gnosis would
achieve true spiritual salvation Marcion came to Rome shortly after
Valentinus and attempted to persuade Christians that the God of the Old
Testament was not the same as the god of the New Testament Marcy and taught that
the God of the Old Testament was an evil being called the Demiurge and that the
Demiurge had created the physical world as a prison for souls who’d fallen from
the pure spiritual world Marcion taught that the true God had
sent an enlightened spirit Jesus Christ in the appearance of a human to rescue
fallen Souls from the corrupt physical world and lead them into a pure
non-physical spiritual world the teaching that Jesus was a divine spirit
without a real human body became known as docetism Justin Martyr was born in
Samaria after studying philosophy he was converted to Christianity by an old man
along the seashore he then traveled through Asia answering
objections to Christianity raised by Jews and Greeks and refuting the
teachings of Marcion he finally came to Rome why during the reign of Marcus
Aurelius he was denounced by cynic philosopher Christians Justin was
beheaded in Rome in the year 168 Eirene es of leon was a disciple of
Polycarp who had been taught directly by Saint John the Evangelist
after learning the fate from Polycarp Irene EOS traveled from Asia to Gaul
where he became Bishop of Leon he wrote a grand treatise against the
agnostic system of Valentinus against heresies which is still preserved to
this day the three largest cities in the Roman Empire were Rome Alexandria and
Antioch these cities had authority over their Patriarchate’s which in the case
of Rome included all of the Western Roman Empire Italy Africa Illyricum and
akia Alexandria had authority over Egypt and Antioch had authority over churches
in the Middle East the bishops of Rome and Alexandria took the title of Pope
while the Bishop of Antioch took the title of patriarch these bishops based
their authority on direct succession from the Apostle Peter who was bishop at
Antioch for eight years sent his disciple Mark the Evangelist to
Alexandria as its first bishop and finally gave his life for the faith in
Rome administration of church governance was further subdivided among large of
regional cities the bishops of the largest cities were called xyx while the
bishops of smaller regional cities were called metropolitans you had supervision
over bishops in their surrounding areas in the late second century in Phrygia a
recent convert to christianity named montanus started a new movement
emphasizing ecstasy’s and continued revelation from the Holy Spirit the new
prophecy movement spreads throughout the church many bishops condemned the
movement but there was not a formal church wide condemnation one of the first early feuds within the
church was quartered ecumenism in asia the followers of Saint John the
Evangelist celebrated Easter on the 14th of the Jewish month of Nisan regardless
of the day of the week while the rest of the church celebrated Easter on Sunday
after the church in Asia refused to change to celebrating Easter on Sunday
po perfected the first threatened to excommunicate them but Arrhenius who was
from Asia intervened and asked Viktor to show leniency in time the court owed
ecumene practice died out and the entire church came to celebrate Easter on
Sunday around the Year 190 the auditors of Byzantium introduced the heresy known
as adoptionism the teaching that Jesus was born a mere man and was later
adopted by God as his son Theo Titus was excommunicated by perfect – the first in
the late 2nd century clement of alexandria began studying philosophy and
christianity in greece in cappadocia before traveling to alexandria where he
wrote extensively and taught his student Origen Clements writings are considered
controversial because they went beyond established Christian orthodoxy
for example clement believed that matter was eternal and not created by god early
in the third century sibelius introduced the heresy of modalism teaching that the
father and the Son and the Holy Spirit was simply manifestations of God in
different places and times this is also known as Patrick passion ISM the
teaching that the father suffered on the cross Sibelius was excommunicated for
heresy by Pope Calixtus the first in the year 220
Hippolytus was a disciple of Arrhenius and wrote the philosophy meaner the
refutation of all heresies against the writings of valentineís Martian and
other heretics he was considered one of the greatest theologians of Rome and
expected to become Pope however zephyr eNOS was elected Pope
instead and Hippolytus refused to accept the result becoming one of the first
anti-popes Hippolytus and polk puncheon were later both exiled by emperor max
him in a Strax to the mines of Sardinia where they reconciled and died together
as martyrs Tertullian lived in Carthage and was one of the first theologians to
write extensively in Latin he is also one of the first Christians to use the
term Trinity Tertullian was an apologist and wrote
extensively against Gnosticism in the latter part of his life he is said to
have joined the montanus Origen was a student of Clement of Alexandria and
wrote extensively from Alexandria he developed an allegorical interpretation
of Scripture and his speculative theology wandered beyond the limits of
Orthodoxy teaching the pre-existence of souls and the subordination of got the
son to God the Father around the Year 250 Santini preached the gospel in Paris
where he was martyred Santini would later be honored as the patron saint of
France innovation was a scholarly theologian in
the Roman Church and expected to be elected Pope to his surprise Cornelius
was elected pope Novation refused to accept the results and wrote to all the
churches of the world claiming that he was the rightful pope his followers
throughout the world became known as Novation as’ and were known for their
extreme rigor ISM refusing to allow Christians who are pasta sized during
the dekyon persecution to return to the church and even taking the extreme
position that any Christian who committed a mortal sin could not return
to the church Cyprien Bishop of Carthage found himself
in the middle of controversies over how to admit apostates and heretics to the
church Cyprien took the position that heretics needed to be rebaptised upon
joining the church but was rebuked by Pope Stephen the first Cyprian grew
quarrelsome of this exchanging angry letters against Pope Stephen with
familiy on Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia Pope Stephen threatened
4,000,000 with excommunication for refusing to adopt the Roman doctrine
prohibiting second baptism however Pope dionysius the first of alexandria
intervened and convinced Stephen to show leniency in the late 250 s a new
persecution broke out under Emperor valerian Pope Stephen and his successor
Pope Sixtus ii were martyred Cyprian was martyred in kerubim aden Kober his last
words were thanks be to God Paul of sama SATA was Bishop of Antioch
from the years 262 268 Paul taught the adoption astera C and was condemned by a
council in Antioch led by familiy on of Caesarea and sanctioned by Pope
Dionysius of Alexandria the decision of the council was ratified by Pope Dinah
CS of Rome and again by Pope Felix the first
in the middle of the first century in Tessa Fong capital of the Sassanid
Empire in Persia the Jewish Christian Gnostic named money began teaching a new
religion that he synthesized from Gnostic Christianity Buddhism and
Zoroastrianism although mani died while imprisoned by
the Zoroastrian rulers of the Sassanid Empire his new religion spread
incredibly fast reaching Rome as early as the air 280 even Augustine of Hippo
was a Manichaean before he converted to Christianity menurkey ISM was intensely
persecuted and died out in Europe by the sixth century although in parts of
Central Asia is survived as late as the 14th century many neoclassic movements
throughout history such as the Cathars of southern europe in the 12th through
14th centuries were based on manikyam the 4th century began with the worldwide
persecution of the church by emperor diocletian the final and bloodiest of
ten great Roman persecutions of the church the persecution came to an end
with the edicts of toleration in the years 311 and 313 under Emperor’s
Galerius and then Constantine Constantine converted to Christianity
but did not make Christianity the state-mandated religion early in the 4th
century a priest in Alexandria named arias began to teach that Jesus prior to
the Incarnation was a created being less than God the Father this produced great
controversy throughout the church although arias was exiled by popes Peter
and Alexander of Alexandria Bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia championed the
teachings of arias at the imperial court of emperor constantine
Emperor Constantine summoned the Council of Nicaea in 325 to settle the Arian
controversy and other issues in the church bishop Josias of cordoba in spain
represented pope sylvester the first as papal legate and presided over the
council according to Athanasius Josias wrote the
nicene creed that was adopted by the council and established the doctrine
that the father and the son were consubstantial having the same undivided
substance or essence the council of nicaea also confirmed the hierarchy of
church governance in which Rome Alexandria and Antioch were acknowledged
as the highest C’s in the church following the council Bishop Eusebius of
Nicomedia and arias were banished by Emperor Constantine however Eusebius was
a skilled politician and quickly rihwan the Emperor’s favor
Constantine brought Eusebius back from exile and made youcbs his chief
religious advisor at the request of Eusebius constantine began deposing
bishops who upheld the orthodox Nicene faith including eustathius of antioch in
330 and Athanasius of Alexandria in 335 Constantine’s successor in the Eastern
Empire Constantius ii supported Arianism and
made Eusebius bishop of the new imperial capital Constantinople in the year 339
Constantius was a committed Arian and opposed bishops who adhere to the Nicene
Creed these bishops fled to the protection of Pope Julius the first in
Rome who restored them to their seas in 350 Emperor Constantius became sole
Emperor and suppressed the church in Rome banishing Pope liberius for two
years consent his successor in the east Valens continued to support Arianism
wolf Ellis the Daath who studied Christianity in Cappadocia was sent by
Eusebius of Nicomedia to teach the Arian faith to the Gothic tribes of Europe
will Phyllis successfully converted the Goths to Arianism and became their
Bishop wolf alas also translated the Bible into Gothic and developed the
Gothic alphabet wolf Phyllis wrote an Arian Creed which
declared that the Holy Spirit was not God that the Holy Spirit was subject and
obedient in all things to the Sun and that the Sun was subject and obedient in
all things to the father at the third Council of sirmium in 357 a Council of
the church rejected the Nicene Creed declared that the father and the son
were not come substantial and in fact that the father was greater than the son
Pope liberius of Rome was exiled for refusing to accept the Arian doctrine
although he was released two years later and continued to uphold the Orthodox
Nicene faith in the year 330 eustathius patriarch of antioch a staunch supporter
of the Nicene Creed was deposed at the request of Eusebius of Nicomedia
in the following decades the emperor would continue to appoint Arian bishops
iver antioch while Orthodox Christians in the city became divided between the
successes of poor Lynas the north adopts Nicene christian and malicious whose
initial position was not clear but who taught orthodox nice in christianity by
the end of his life supporting gregory of nazianzus and presiding over the
first council of constantinople in the year 381 it took until early in the
fifth century for the followers of poor linus to accept the successors of
malicious Arianism continued to flourish until Emperor Theodosius ascended the
imperial throne in the year 379 Theodosius expelled the Arian Bishop of
Constantinople an appointed gregory nazianzen leader of a small group of
orthodox Nicene Christians Bishop of Constantinople the city’s Arian populace
rioted in protest in 380 Theodosius issued the Edict of
Thessalonica which commanded the entire Roman Empire to submit to the Orthodox
Christian faith the some Pisa had taught to the Romans and there had been
faithfully preserved by Pope Damasus of Rome and Pope Peter of Alexandria
Emperor Theodosius subsequently made Arianism illegal throughout the empire
at the Council of Constantinople 150 bishops all from the east ratified the
Orthodox Nicene faith and rebuked the heresies of new matter mechanism the
teaching that the Holy Spirit was less than the father and the son and
apolinaria nism the teaching that the highest part of the soul of Jesus was
replaced by the divine logos however her Pauline Arian writers had written many
forgeries under the names of Orthodox fathers such as Athanasius which
included stainless to the effect that Jesus had one nature one energy and one
will malicious of Antioch died while presiding over the council the Council
of Constantinople without the consent of the churches of Rome and Alexandria
elevated Constantinople to the second highest sea in the church after Rome
based on its status as the new capital of the Empire the attempt by
constantinople to elevate itself over Alexandria and Antioch would produce
infighting between Constantinople Alexandria and Antioch in the coming
decades that eventually led to all-out schism
the fifth-century began with conflict between the Seas of Constantinople
Alexandria and Antioch st. John Chrysostom a priest from Antioch was
named Bishop of Constantinople in 403 Theophilus Pope of Alexandria feared
antiox influence over the imperial court at Constantinople and sought to depose
Chris system although Theophilus was initially unsuccessful Chrysostom
eventually lost favour with the Empress and was deposed and exiled he appealed
for help from Pope Innocent the first in Rome who excommunicated the officials of
Constantinople for their treatment of Chrysostom Chrysostom died in exile
meanwhile the Western Empire was collapsing and Rome was sacked by the
Arian Visigoths in 410 the Visigoths then relocated to Spain during this time
st. Agustin Bishop of Hippo led the Church in Africa the g’sten combated the
Donatists whose similar to the Novation as’ challenged the right of apostates to
administer sacraments as well as Pelagians who asserted that the
sacraments were not necessary for people who were strong enough to live a holy
life through their own effort in addition the bishops of Africa became
increasingly frustrated by appeals from their subjects to the Pope in Rome and
forbade this practice at the Council of Carthage in 419 this quarrel culminated
in the optimist in 426 a letter written by the African bishops to Pope Celestine
the first in which they angrily objected to the Pope interfering in the judicial
discipline of the churches in Africa the quarrel was brought to an end by the
conquest of North Africa by the Vandals in the years 429 to 439 the Vandals were
Arian and oppressed the local Catholics st. Augustine died during the siege of
Hippo by the Vandals in the year 430 the feud between Constantinople
Alexandria and Antioch resumed with the appointment of Nestorius a priest from
Antioch to the bishopric of Constantinople in 428 nestorius was from
a theological School in Antioch that emphasized the humanity of Christ and
sought to explain how the human Jesus became united to the divine logos
Christians in this time were honoring Mary as the Theotokos the mother of God
but Nestorian opposed this practice saying that Mary was merely the mother
of Christ Nestorius was accused of heresy by pope cyril of alexandria cyril
received approval from pope celestine in rome to depose Nestorius at the Council
of Ephesus in 431 patriarch John the first of Antioch no doubt perturbed that
Alexandria was deposing an Antiochian Bishop of Constantinople for the second
time in 30 years our first refused to accept the council
setting up his own rival council however John eventually relented and agreed to
the deposition of Nestorius Saint Cyril of Alexandria is writings on the
Nestorian controversy became widely celebrated throughout the Eastern Church
including in the region of Antioch the followers of historia sat first
congregated around the school of Odessa but in 489 were forced by Byzantine
Emperor Zeno to flee to the Sassanid Empire in Persia the Sassanid Empire was
happy to tolerate Christians in his borders as long as they were in schism
with the religion of his primary enemy the Byzantine Empire and so the Church
of these became Nestorian and spread as far east as china in the following
centuries st. Patrick was raised in Roman occupied England but at the age of
14 was kidnapped by Irish Raiders and forced into slavery as a shepherd st.
Patrick escaped Ireland and entered a monastery in Gaul eventually returning
to Ireland and converting the Irish to Christianity in his writings st. Cyril
of Alexandria had quoted an appalling Aryan forgery that asserted that Jesus
had one nature mere thesis his successor Pope Deus chorus of Alexandria believed
this to be the historic teaching of the church Deus chorus saw a third
opportunity for Alexandria to deposed the
of Constantinople when Bishop Flavian condemned the monk you turkeys for
teaching that Jesus had one nature you turkeys and Flavian both appealed to
Pope Leo the first of Rome meanwhile deus chorus 1 the heir of emperor
theodosius ii who allowed dears chorus and bishop Juvenal of jerusalem to
convene the rubber Council of Ephesus in 449 wished opposed both Flavian and Pope
Leo Emperor Theodosius died within a year and the new emperor Marcion was
loyal to Pope Leo Leo called for a new council and wrote the famous Leo’s tome
which set forth the Orthodox doctrine of Christology that the church is upheld to
the present day their hippest at a union Jesus is one person with two natures
fully God and fully man – perfect natures without confusion
without mixture with our separation without change in one person the council
of chalcedon accepted Leo’s tome in 451 and opposed
deus chorus the tension between Constantinople
Alexandria and Antioch erupted into al-rai schism following the Council of
Chalcedon in addition to the mere facade controversy the council of chalcedon had
attempted to make several important changes in church governance first in
exchange for bishop juvenile of jerusalem returning to the Catholic
faith Jerusalem was elevated to a Patriarchate with Palestine removed from
the patriarchate of antioch next the council of chalcedon made Constantinople
the final Court of Appeal for bishops in the east an elevated Constantinople to a
Patriarchate over the regions of Thrace Asia and pontus most importantly the
Council of Chalcedon attempted to make Constantinople the second highest C in
the church above Alexandria and Antioch just as the Council of Constantinople
had tried to do 70 years earlier Pope Leo was outraged that Constantinople had
upset the hierarchy of the established Petra in seas of Rome
Alexandria and Antioch that had been fixed by the Council of Nicaea he
refused to accept the proposed changes and rebuked bishop Anatoly of
Constantinople for using the myocyte controversy as an excuse to usurp power
the people of Alexandria were even more outraged the council of chalcedon had
banished their Pope pious chorus and installed Proteus as bishop an angry mob
in Alexandria killed Pretorius and installed Timothy a zealous Maya
physique as Pope of Alexandria in Syria and Palestine kalsa don was rejected by
the local people the first great schism in the church had begun the people of
Egypt in Syria cops and syria’s formed the Oriental
Orthodox Communion and were continued to the present day to elect their own mayor
physic patriarchs in opposition to the Imperial Melkite patriarchs appointed by
the Emperor from Constantinople at the time of kalsa Don Attila the Hun
conquered Central Europe and was poised to sack Rome but Pope Leo rode out to
meet them and persuaded Attila to spare the city meanwhile the Vandals
aggressively conquered the western half of the Mediterranean capturing Sicily
Sardinia and Corsica in 455 the Vandals sacked Rome the second psyching in 45
years although Pope Leo persuaded them to
spare the city’s inhabitants in the last great joint military campaign of the
western and eastern Roman Empire a massive Armada of Byzantine and Roman
ships was destroyed by the Vandals at the Battle of Cartagena in 468 the
Byzantine Empire was left bankrupt and the Western Empire was deprived of its
source of grain from Africa in 471 Peter the fuller Maya physik patriarch of
Antioch introduced the Nicene Creed as modified by the Council of
Constantinople in 381 into the liturgy at Antioch in protest of the Council of
Chalcedon although the Creed was originally used in this way to protest
the Council of Chalcedon its use in liturgy spread throughout the
church and by the 11th century was used by the Church of Rome in 480 to
Byzantine Emperor Zeno attempted a plaque aids the Maya facade factions in
Alexandria and Antioch by issuing a statement of faith called the hinata-kun
which approved the writings of cyril of alexandria but did not mention the
council of chalcedon or leo’s tome Pope Felix the 3rd of Rome condemned the
hinata con but bishops Acacia of Constantinople
Peter the fuller of Antioch and Peter mungus of Alexandria accepted it
Pope Felix therefore excommunicated all three of them beginning vacation a
schism that would last until 519 Felix is often quoted as saying not to oppose
error is to approve it and not to defend truth is to suppress it and indeed to
neglect confound evil men where we can do it is no less a sin than to encourage
them in 476 the last Western Roman Emperor
Romulus Augustus was overthrown by his general podracer who established the
kingdom of italy in 493 Theodoric the great and Aryan and king of the
Ostrogoths defeated and killed Otto ASA and established ostrogothic rule over
Italy Otto aces final words were where is God 500 years after the birth of
Jesus Orthodox Christianity was on the verge of extinction Aryan kingdoms had
conquered all of Europe Italy ghoul Spain and North Africa the Byzantine
Empire had rejected Leo’s tome and embraced my visit ISM Rome alone stood
for the Orthodox Catholic faith surrounded on all sides by Aryans and
maya physics rome had been sacked twice in the past century and was now under
the rule of an aryan kingdom in the coming century Rome would be brought to
the brink of annihilation as the armies of Constantinople and the Ostrogoths
descended upon it but a new light began to shine in 508 when King Clovis the
first of the franks was baptized as a Catholic the darkness receded further in
519 when Byzantine Emperor Justin the first unable to maintain ecclesiastical
union with Syria and Egypt sought reunion with Rome and compelled his
bishops to submit to the formula of pope or miss das which affirmed Leo’s tome
and declared that all who did not agree with the Bishop of Rome were not in
communion with the Catholic Church however the Maya physics in Syria and
Egypt refused to accept the formula Leo’s tome or the council of chalcedon the Catholic Church finally brought an
end to the Pelagian controversy at the Council of orange in 529 which condemned
semi-pelagianism the doctrine the humans of their own effort without the help of
the grace of God can come to faith in the desire for baptism in the East new
Byzantine Emperor Justinian the first began a campaign to recapture the
Western Empire beginning with the successful conquest of North Africa from
the Vandals in 533 Justinian then sought to conquer Italy from the Ostrogoths he
captured Rome in 536 ad the Ostrogoths counter attacked and besieged the city
in 538 and finally sacked the city in 546 the Byzantines retook the city but
the Ostrogoths sacked it a second time in 549 the Byzantines finally captured
Rome for good in 552 the constant fighting left Rome almost completely
destroyed from a population of over a million people at the time of the
Apostles Peter and Paul the population of Rome fell to a mere 50,000
Justinian’s ambitions were disrupted in 541 when plague broke out in
Constantinople rapidly spreading across the Byzantine Empire 10,000 people a day
died in Constantinople Justinian himself was infected but survived the Byzantine
Empire was greatly weakened monasteries in Italy during this time
were frequently relaxed places where members of wealthy aristocratic families
lived a life of leisure st. Benedict attempted to change this by introducing
the rule of Saint Benedict which established a strict regimen of work
prayer and study Benedict’s rule was so strict the one monastery attempted to
poison him twice over the next five centuries the rule of st. Benedict would
become the predominant rule of monastic life in Western Europe while the
Ostrogoths were besieging Rome in 545 Emperor Justinian brought Pope vigil
iasts the first to Constantinople where he stayed at the Placidia Palace and was
safe from the constant fighting that was destroying Rome at Constantinople
Emperor Justinian put pressure on Pope virgilius to condemn the three chapters
certain Nestorian writings from the previous century Justinian believed
their condemnation would help bring reunion with the Maya Physics in Syria
and Egypt the writers of the three chapters had died in the previous
century and two of the writers had been reconciled to the Church of the Council
of Chalcedon Pope virgilius was reluctant to posthumously condemn these
writers but eventually consented to the condemnation issued by the fifth
ecumenical council in 553 in 555 three years after Rome had been safely
restored to the Byzantine Empire Pope fidelia’s left Constantinople for Rome
but died on the journey the Byzantine Empire was severely weakened by the
plague and decades of fighting the Ostrogoths which allowed the germanic
Lombards to invade Italy in 568 the lombards conquered most of the peninsula
except for the exarchate of ravenna a narrow corridor from Ravenna the capital
to Rome the Byzantine Emperor continued to rule the exit of Ravenna and required
his consent to all elections of the Pope resulting in the era of the Byzantine
papacy in 587 King Riccar at the first of the
Visigoths converted from Arianism to catholicism pope gregory the great
reigned from 590 to 604 he reformed the church and sent Michener’s throughout
Europe in 588 John the faster Bishop of Constantinople claimed the title of
ecumenical Bishop or universal bishop but Pope Gregory refused to permit the
title affirming papal supremacy and the rank of the three Petra in seas of Rome
Alexandria and Antioch above Constantinople in the east the Byzantine
Empire faced a new threat as a migrating Troy from Asia the avars invaded the
Balkans pagan Saxons had conquered England after the fall of the Roman
Empire Pope Gregory the Great sent a Gustin of Canterbury to evangelize the
Saxons in England and Augustine became the first Archbishop of Canterbury in
the year 597 in 602 war erupted between the Byzantine Empire and the Sassanid
Empire the Sassanid Empire gained early victories conquering Antioch in 613
Jerusalem in 614 Anatolia in 617 and Alexandria in 618 however the Byzantine
Empire rallied under Emperor Heraclius and defeated the Sassanid Empire the
Battle of Nineveh in 628 regaining all of his lost territory
in the year 633 Melkite patriarch cyrus of alexandria reached an agreement with
the coptic church that there is one energy or faculty of action in jesus the
doctrine of monophyletic ‘m the monks are Aeneas who had become patriarch of
Jerusalem staunch the opposed monophyletic and protested to patriarch
Sergius of constantinople that there were two energies in Jesus died o’the
elitism Sergius proposed to Pope Honorius the first in Rome that the
church should prohibit the discussion of one or two energies altogether Sergius
mentioned as a side note that the doctrine of two energies might lead
people to believe there are two contrary wills in Christ Pope Honorius wrote back
agreeing with the proposal to prohibit the discussion of one or two energies
Bern aureus also mentioned as a side note that Jesus has one will because
when Jesus assumed human nature Jesus assumed the nature we had before Adams
fall not our vitiated admirer tainted by original sin Hearne aureus personal
secretary successor Pope John the 4th and Maximus the Confessor defended these
statements saying that an aureus had only denied the existence of a sinful
will in Christ’s human nature not the existence of a human were all together meanwhile in Mesopotamia the arab-muslim
rashidun caliphate had risen up against the Byzantine and sassanid empires to
the shock of both empires the Arabs defeated the combined forces of the
Sassanid and Byzantine empires in the Battle of Firoz in December 633 Tessa
Fon the capital of the Sassanid Empire fell in March 637 in the same year the
rashidun caliphate captured both Antioch and Jerusalem with the borders of his
empire collapsing Emperor Heraclius was annoyed to find his bishops quarreling
over monitor let ISM own aureus Sergius and suffer Gnaeus all died in 638 and
Heraclitus issued the AK thesis which prohibited discussion of one or two
energies in Christ and affirmed that Jesus has only one will the Melkite
patriarchs of Constantinople Antioch who following the fall of Antioch to the
Sassanid Empire resided in Constantinople and Alexandria all
affirmed the egg thesis but Pope’s ever honest the first condemned the ex esis
and affirmed that there are two energies and two wills in Jesus Christ human and
divine Alexandria fell to the rashidun caliphate in 641 Roman Constantinople
were the only sees that remained in the Byzantine Empire they remained in schism
for the next 40 years meanwhile MIFA sites in Syria and Egypt welcomed the
rashidun caliphate as liberators and joined in the fight against the
Byzantine Empire eager to bring an end to the quarrel among his bishops Emperor
Constance ii in 648 issued the typos which ordered the church to cease all
discussion of one or two wills or energies in Jesus Pope Martin the first
refused to comply and was seized by Byzantine troops and died in prison
after refusing to renounce diethyl ette ism Maximus the Confessor left
Constantinople for Rome a he too was arrested and died in prison for refusing
to renounce the earth elitism meanwhile the rashidun caliphate was
divided in a civil war and replaced by the Umayyad Caliphate in 661 which
reached the outskirts of Carthage in 665 the Umayyad Caliphate conquered Anatolia
and besieged Constantinople from 674 to 678 the Byzantine Empire used Greek fire
against the Umayyad Navy for the first time in recorded history to answer the
Byzantine empires troubles a new tribe from Central Asia the Bulgarians had
invaded Thrace in 670 pressing as far as Thessalonica in Italy King aribert the
first of the lombards converted from arianism to catholicism in 653 the
Lombard Kings remained firmly Catholic from the time of King Kirk turret
bringing an end to the Arian rulers of the Germanic tribes in Europe finally in
680 to 681 Emperor Constantine the 4th submitted to Pope Agharta the 1st and
convened the 6th ecumenical council which condemned moneth ìletís ‘m and
affirmed stifle it ism by this point the Maya physics in Egypt Syria and
Palestine were no longer part of the Byzantine Empire and the Emperor had
little reason to continue compromising with them the 6th ecumenical council
condemned Pope Honorius as a heretic for following patriarch Sergius but Pope Leo
ii changed the condemnation condemning an aureus for negligence rather than
heresy in 692 the Byzantine Empire held a
council of eastern bishops in Constantinople the quinna sex council
also known as the council in trullo which condemned certain practices in the
Western Church including the depiction of Jesus as a lamb
when Pope Sergius the first refused to accept the council Emperor Justinian the
seconds and soldiers to arrest the Pope but Justinian soldiers were repulsed by
local militia in Ravenna who were loyal to the Pope in response to the Quinnie
sexist councils prohibition of depictions of Jesus as a lamb poke
Sergius introduced Agnes day into the Liturgy of the Roman mass the Roman
Church never accepted the Quinnie sects Council the following year the Umayyad
Caliphate captured Carthage they would complete the conquest of North Africa in
the following decade Manoah lights continued to hold
influencing Constantinople in 711 Emperor Philippakis bardeen’s
ascended the throne and installed a monetha light John the sixth as Bishop
of Constantinople who convened a synod that revoked the sick that key Medical
Council Pope Constantine excommunicated them at the same time Bulgarians
plundered Thrace up to the walls of Constantinople and the Byzantine army
rebelled against Philippakis blinding him and installing his secretary as
emperor anastasius anastasius reinstated the 6th ecumenical council and deposed
the mana thelight patriarch John the 6th replacing him with the orthodox
patriarch Germanness in 715 the Umayyad Caliphate invaded Spain in 711 and
destroyed the Visigoths the Umayyad Caliphate then invaded Gaul where they
met Charles Martel prince of the franks at the Battle of Tours in 732 Charles
Martel defeated the Umayyad Caliphate he retreated to Iberia leaving Gaul under
the control of the Franks the umayyad caliphates laid siege to Constantinople
from 717 to 719 Emperor Leo the asourian enlisted the help of the Bulgarians who
forced the Umayyad Caliphate to retreat Leo feared that the Empire had lost
favor with God due to the veneration of icons in 730 he issued an edict
prohibiting the veneration of icons and installed an iconoclast anastasios as
patriarch of constantinople pope gregory ii condemned Leo’s iconoclasm and Saint
John of Damascus living in Umayyad held Damascus wrote a firm defense of the
veneration of icons léo successor constantine v zealously
enforced iconoclasm declaring he cannot be depicted for what is depicted is one
person and he who circumscribes that person as plainly circumscribed the
divine nature which is incapable of being circumscribed in February 754
constantine convened a synod of eastern bishops who voted in favor of iconoclasm
by the end of Constantine’s reign iconoclasm had gone as far as to brand
relics and prayers to the Saints as heretical meanwhile with the Byzantine
Empire distracted by wars against the Bulgarians and Muslims Lombard King ice
Dolph captured Ravenna in 751 ending over two centuries of Byzantine rule
following the Lombard conquest of Ravenna Pope Zachary appealed for help
from Pepin the younger whom he crowned king of the franks the franks invaded
Italy and conquered the Lombards and granted most of the former executor of
Ravenna to the Pope as his temporal domain which would become known as the
papal States this marked a significant new era in the papacy which for the
previous 200 years had been under the relatively stable protection of the
Byzantine Empire for the next a hundred years the papacy would find itself at
the center of seemingly unending conflicts between Italian principalities
and Europe’s great powers the popes of rome continued to oppose
byzantine iconoclasm emperor constantine vi finally relented and allowed the
seventh ecumenical council to meet in 787 the council had to meet in Nicaea
site of the first ecumenical council in 325 because the city of Constantinople
was under iconoclast rule the seventh ecumenical council
agreed to the demands of Pope Adrian the first and affirmed the orthodoxy of the
veneration of icons of Jesus the Blessed Virgin Mary the angels and the Saints on
Christmas Day in a hundred Pope Leo the third crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman
Emperor as some Peter’s Basilica in Rome while the Byzantine Empire saw it as a
betrayal since there had been the guardian of the faith for the past four
hundred years the Pope hoped it would usher in a new era of stability and
independence and free the papacy from outside political meddling instead
Charlemagne’s empire would quickly splinter after his death and the papacy
would find itself at the mercy of whichever italian principality happened
to have the most power at any particular moment in 823 king harald plaque of
denmark was baptized and Catholic missionaries continued to spread the
gospel in Norway and Sweden in 815 Byzantine Emperor Leo v
reinstituted iconoclasm Pope Pascal the first offered persecuted Byzantine monks
refuge in Rome st. Theodore the study in Constantinople wrote zealously against
iconoclasm finally in 843 Byzantine Emperor Michael the third deposed the
iconoclast patriarch John the seventh of Constantinople replacing him with
patriarch Methodius the first which brought an end to Constantinople second
era of iconoclasm in 827 the Abbasid Caliphate launched an invasion of Sicily
and southern Italy which had been under Byzantine rule in 846 the Anglo bits
vassals of the Abbasid Caliphate and known to Italy as Saracens landed in
central Italy and defeated the local Roman militia the Saracens plundered all
of Rome outside the irrilium wall including st. Peter’s Basilica where
Pope Leo the third had crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor just 46
years earlier in response Pope Leo the fourth called together a fleet from
neighboring Italian principalities that defeated the Saracen Navy at the Battle
of Ostia in 849 missionaries Cyril and Methodius
converted the Slavic tribes of Central Europe in great Moravia and Pannonia
from 862 to 885 and brought these tribes into communion with Rome in 858 patriarch Ignatius of
Constantinople was deposed and a layman photius was appointed patriarch by
Emperor Michael the third Ignatius and photius both appealed to Pope Nicholas
the first who recognized Ignatius in his rightful patriarch Roman Constantinople
fell into schism until 867 when Nicholas died and photius was deposed by new
emperor basil the first in 864 con boris the first of bulgaria was baptised into
the Catholic faith and sought competing offers from Rome and Constantinople as
to which Patriarchate he should belong to in 869 the fourth Council of
Constantinople affirmed that a position of photius and prohibited criticism of
the Pope it also affirmed the veneration of images of Jesus his mother Mary the
angels and the Saints and recognized Constantinople as the second highest see
in the church photius became patriarch of Constantinople for a second time in
877 and held a council in 879 revoking the Council of a hundred and sixty-nine
the Council of 879 was not accepted by Rome in the 9th century the pagan magis
migrated from Central Asia to Eastern Europe and conquered present-day Hungary
from where they launched raids against the scattered principalities of the
former Carolingian Empire at the same time Vikings from Scandinavia harassed
the coast of northern Europe and England the Carolingian Empire had been
established with the crowning of Charlemagne in a hundred but his
successors were unable to keep the Empire United the Carolingian Empire
split apart for good in 888 in the absence of a strong central power in
Western Europe the papacy found itself at the mercy of local Italian
principalities while the opposite Caliphate conquered Sicily and central
Italy coming within striking distance of Rome
leo the sixth became byzantine emperor in 886 he banished photius and liberated
southern Italy from the opposite caliphate but lost sicily and failed in
an attempt to retake crete in 907 and 911 kievan rus laid siege to
constantinople forcing the negotiation of a favorable trade treaty
although photius had attempted to convert kievan rus’ to christianity the
king and a majority of the people remained pagan until the end of the 10th
century Norse Vikings had been raiding northern Europe since 820 in 911 Charles
the 3rd king of West Frankia negotiated an agreement with Viking leader Rollo
they granted the Vikings territory in northern France which became known as
the Duchy of Normandy the Normans would come to play a major part in church
history in the coming centuries the disintegration of the Carolingian Empire
allowed count fearful act of Tusculum in Italy to attain de facto rule over Rome
fearful act and his family used their power to control elections to the papacy
in the early 10th century an era called the secular obscure the Dark Age of the
papacy while rome was dominated by the count of
tusculum monasticism and church discipline declined across Europe as the
Carolingian Empire disintegrated into countless separate fiefdoms in 910 st.
Brno became Abbot of the new abbey of Cluny and immediately enforced a strict
interpretation of the rule of st. Benedict in the following century a new
line of popes would emerge from Clooney Abbey to reform the church and defy the
Holy Roman Emperor the Abbasid Caliphate captured central Italy in the late 9th
century threatening Rome itself in 915 Italian forces under the command of Pope
John the 10th and Byzantine forces from southern Italy attacked the main Abhisit
fortress on the curricula Arno River in central Italy the Abbasids were defeated
and driven from mainland Italy back to Sicily Otto Duke of Saxony United the
German territories of the former Carolingian Empire and restored the Holy
Roman Empire Otto brought an end to the mud jar raids against Europe with his
victory at the Battle of ledge felled in 955 earning him the reputation as the
savior of Christendom in 961 Otto conquered Italy and was crowned Holy
Roman Emperor st. Peter’s Basilica in 962 otto also negotiated a peace that
permitted the byzantine empire to retain southern Italy more kingdoms of northern
and eastern europe converted to christianity in the 10th century in 966
Mia’s kojic of Poland was baptized in 988 Vladimir the great Grand Prince of
Kiev was baptized in 995 Olaf 3 person became the first Christian King of
Norway Sweden and magyar Hungary remained two of the few pagan countries
left in Europe nubia Modern Sudan and Ethiopia had been
loyal to the patriarch of Alexandria from the beginning of the church Nubia
followed the Coptic Church and adopted my visit ISM the Nubian kingdoms of
Nebojsa materia and alodia reached the peak of their power in the 10th century
before eventually being overrun by the Abbasid Caliphate by the beginning of
the 11th century the Byzantine Empire had recovered much of its former
territory and reasserted itself as the dominant power in the eastern
Mediterranean Antioch Syria and Palestine north of Jerusalem were
recaptured by the Empire before the turn of the millennium under emperor basil ii
the byzantine empire conquered bulgaria the Crimea and the southern Caucasus in
the year 1001 Stephen the first became the first Catholic king of Hungary and
in 1008 all of scud Kooning king of sweden was baptized as a Catholic 1,000
years after the birth of Jesus Christ all of Europe was united in the Catholic
faith the kingdoms of Nubia had spread Christianity into sub-saharan Africa and
the Church of the East had brought Christianity as far east as China the
Byzantine Empire had been restored to its former glory and Rome and
Constantinople had gone over 100 years without a schism but tensions in
southern Italy and a new threat from Central Asia would soon lead to an
enduring schism in the heart of Christendom in the early 11th century
lumbars in southern Italy rebelled against the Byzantine Empire and
recruited mercenaries from the Duchy of Normandy in northern France the Normans
were granted land in return for their service and quickly became the dominant
power in southern Italy the Norman use of Latin Rite worship with unleavened
bread created conflict with local Byzantine citizens who used leavened
bread which they viewed as symbolic of the resurrection Pope Leo the ninth came
to view the Normans as a threat and raised an army to assist the byzantine
war against the Normans but he was defeated by the Normans at the Battle of
civitate in 1053 in 1051 Benedictine monk Peter Damien
urged the Pope to correct widespread problems in the clergy particularly the
lack of celibacy the purchase of clerical offices a practice that was
named simony after simon magus who sought to buy the gift of laying on
hands from the Apostle Peter and the appointment of Bishops by secular rulers
which was known as lay investiture the attempt by the Pope’s in the coming
decades to correct these vices would lead to confrontation with the Holy
Roman Emperor Peter Damien also began the fundamental debate of the second
millennium concerning the relationship between reason and faith arguing that
philosophy should be used in a manner consistent with the Christian faith patriarch Michael Cyril arias in
Constantinople was angered by the Norman disturbance in southern Italy and wrote
a letter criticizing their liturgical practices he also closed Latin Rite
churches in Constantinople in reprisal for Norman closings of Byzantine
churches in southern Italy Pope Leo the 9th sent Cardinal Humbert of Silva
Candida to negotiate with Carol arias but Carol arias refused to meet with him
after months of waiting Cardinal Humbert delivered a notice of excommunication
against Carol arias on July the 16th 1054 but Pope Leo had died three months
earlier so the excommunication had no effect nevertheless Carol arias removed
Leo’s name from the diptych in Constantinople in 1066 William the
Conqueror defeated harold ii of england at the Battle of Hastings William became
King of England in southern Italy pope nicholas ii made peace with the Normans
Investing Norman leader Robert Guiscard as Duke of southern Italy and Sicily the
Normans finish their conquest of byzantine southern Italy and Sicily in
1070 – and turned their sights on the Balkans where Norman leader Robert
Guiscard defeated the Byzantine Empire in a
series of battles and established a short-lived Norman fir hold
however the Normans were urgently recalled to Italy by Pope Gregory who
was under siege by Emperor Henry the fourth of the
Roman Empire by 1073 the Holy Roman Empire had fallen
from his Heights under Auto the first and was facing fragmentation and
decentralization has various principalities challenged the authority
of Emperor Henry the fourth meanwhile Pope Gregory the seventh was attempting
to reform the church by restoring priestly celibacy ending simony and
ending lay investiture the appointment of Bishops by the secular King this last
reform brought Pope Gregory into conflict with Emperor Henry and after
the Emperor attempted to depose Gregory Gregory deposed and excommunicated the
Emperor after several attempts at reconciliation Emperor Henry the fourth
invaded Rome and appointed Ebert of Ravenna as anti Pope Clement the third
Robert Guiscard defeated Emperor Henry the fourth at Rome but following the
victory Robert Guiscard Norman soldiers plundered the city after three days that
people of Rome rose up against the Normans while the Normans suppress them
and set fire to much of the city hope Gregory the seventh was exiled and died
shortly thereafter Robert Guiscard army left Rome to focus on their war with the
byzantine empire leaving aunty pope clement the third who was loyal to the
holy roman empire in control of the city the next two popes victor the third and
herb and the second were forced to reign from outside the city until 1096 when a
french army called to the crusades by pope urban ii liberated rome and allowed
pope urban to safely return the foremost theologian of the 11th
century was Bishop Anselm of Canterbury who introduced the ontological proof for
the existence of God argued in favor of the procession of the Holy Spirit from
the father and the son and taught the satisfaction theory of the atonement
that Jesus Christ offered himself on the cross not merely as a ransom to the
devil but in satisfaction of the debt of honor that mankind owed to God and some
became embroiled in what would become the fundamental philosophical debate of
the second millennium concerning the relationship between universals and
particulars the latin world had generally accepted the realist
philosophy of Plato and Aristotle the universals have a real existence late in
the 11th century a French philosopher named Ross :
challenged realism and introduced the philosophy known as nominalism teaching
that only particulars exist and that universals are merely words given to
common attributes of particulars ruslan also argued that the Father and the Son
and the Holy Spirit were not one God but three gods Anselm a realist strongly
condemned Ruslan’s teachings but the cause of nominalism would be taken up in
the 12th century by the philosopher Peter Abelard the Seljuk Turks led by ARP haslin had
migrated from Central Asia north of the Caspian and arel seas into Persia and
invaded the Byzantine Empire in 1068 in 1071 the Turks decisively defeated the
Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Mons occurred effectively bringing all of
Anatolia and the Turkish control the Turkish Empire became the dominant power
in the Middle East stretching from Anatolia to the borders of China as I
hear al Dola our took bay founded the Artic wit
dynasty which ruled the east coast of mediterranean sea including Antioch and
Jerusalem reports soon reached Europe of mistreatment of Christian pilgrims in
the Holy Land in 1095 Byzantine Emperor Alexios the
first appealed to pope urban ii for help against the seljuq turks
pope urban ii proclaimed the first crusade and granted a plenary indulgence
to all who joined a peasant army led by peter the hermit arrived in
constantinople in 1096 but they were easily defeated by the turks upon
crossing into Anatolia the princes Crusade succeeded in defeating the Turks
in Anatolia in 1098 they captured Antioch meanwhile Fatimid Arabs had
succeeded in liberating Jerusalem from the Artic Witsell jokes the fatimids
were elide with the byzantine empire nevertheless the Crusaders set aside the
initial objective of repulsing the Seljuk Turks and sought to reclaim the
Holy Land for Christendom in 1099 the Crusaders captured Jerusalem from the
Fatimids after a long siege the Crusaders slaughtered every inhabitant
of the city in contrast when the Arab Muslims had captured Jerusalem in 637
they did not kill a single inhabitant instead the Muslim caliph Umar son of al
khattab calmly and the city are escorted and toward it with patriarchs a furnace
the Crusaders defeated a counter-attack by the Fatimids at the Battle of Ascalon
and Muhammad’s retreated into Egypt leaving the Crusaders in control of the
Crusader States at Antioch Tripoli and Jerusalem for the time being
at the start of the 12th century Pope pascal ii appointed eric new person
bishop of Greenland and Vinland modern-day newfoundland making him the
first bishop of america the investiture controversy that began under Pope
Gregory the 7th and Emperor Henry the 4th finally came to a resolution between
Emperor Henry the fifth and Pope Callistus and second with the Concordat
of worms in 1122 previous Holy Roman emperors had thought it their right to
appoint bishops and to confirm the papal election the Concordat of worms
significantly reduced the Emperor’s power the king was recognized as having
the right to invest bishops with secular authority but not with religious
authority the Melkite patriarch of antioch Anastasis ii died in 609 and
constantinople began to appoint a series of titular patriarchs who resided not in
Antioch but in Constantinople in 685 the Maronites elected bishop John Marin of
Maroon as patriarch of Antioch and all the East the Maronites welcomed the
Crusaders and saw reunion with Rome in 1131 reunion was granted and Maronite
patriarch Gregorius al halat II was recognized by Pope Innocent ii as the
rightful patriarch of Antioch early in the 12th century a professor of
the university of paris named peter abelard planted the seeds of rationalism
that would come to dominate philosophical thought in the second
millennium Abelard championed the use of aristotle in logic regardless of whether
it led to orthodox theological conclusions Abelard was accused of
denying the separate existence of the three persons of the trinity and of
teaching that Jesus did not atone for humanity’s sins but merely set a good
example for his disciples to follow a Ballards innovative ideas brought him
into conflict with the Catholic hierarchy and st. Bernard of Clairvaux
by the beginning of the 12th century discipline in monasteries had once again
declined the Cistercian movement sought to restore monasteries to the austerity
of the rule of st. benedict with an emphasis on manual labor saint bernard
of clairvaux joined the Cistercian monastery in the 12th century and
quickly became recognized across europe as the most influential mystic in the
church bernard rebutted the teachings of peter abelard
and was instrumental in preaching the second crusade in 1140 for the seljuq
empire recaptured odessa from the Crusader States in response Pope Eugene
the third called for the second crusade which was fervently preached by Saint
Bernard however the Crusaders suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of the
seljuqs st. Bernard felt humiliated and wrote a
letter of apology to the Pope elsewhere the holy roman empire launched the
wendish Crusades to convert the Palladian Slavs in North East Europe and
Aragon and Castile retook Spain from the Muslim taifa kingdoms the papacy suffered a series of defeats
against Norman occupied southern Italy following the Norman sack of Rome in
1084 Pope Innocent ii was ambushed and taken prisoner by norman troops in 1139
in 1140 for papal forces were again defeated by the Normans the newly formed
Roman Senate used the opportunity to revolt against the Pope declaring the
commune of Rome in 1144 the following year Pope Lucius the second guide
leading an assault against the commune arnold of brassia was a student of the
peter abelard while Abelard abandoned his teachings under the threat of
excommunication arnold brazenly championed Abelard teachings and
defiance of the church in 1145 arnold returned from exile to join the
communist Rome and the following year he succeeded in driving Pope Eugene the
third from the sissy donald rejected the temporal power of the Pope denounced
clerical wealth and championed apostolic poverty ideas that would find a growing
audience among dissenters such as Peter Waldo the spiritualist sect of the
Franciscans and John Wickliffe in the coming centuries hope Adrian the fourth
summoned an army from the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa to retake
the city of Rome and Arnold was burned at the stake Islamic philosophy
flourished as early as the 8th century based on the writings of Plato and
Aristotle and led to significant developments in science and mathematics
in the 11th century Persian scholar al-ghazali led a reaction against Greek
philosophy in his treatise the incoherence of the Philosopher’s
al-ghazali was strongly rebutted in the 12th century by the Spanish philosopher
of errors whose arguments in favor of the use of aristocracy in logic had a
powerful influence on medieval scholastic theologians at the
universities of Paris and Naples in the middle of the 12th century Peter Lombard
a scholar at the University of Paris wrote one of the first comprehensive
textbooks on Christian theology the book of sentences which would form the basis
of scholastic studies for the next several centuries saladin a sunni muslim from the abbasid
caliphate traveled to cairo as an advisor to the sheer Fatimid Caliphate
Saladin quickly rose through the ranks and eventually overthrew the Fatimid
Caliphate becoming sultan of the new are you would sultanate and launching a
successful military campaign that recaptured Jerusalem Damascus and other
territory from the Crusader States following which he negotiated a peace
with King Richard the Lionheart of England during this time Constantinople
had made trade agreements with Venice Genoa and Pisa Italian merchants soon
became a sizable portion of the city’s population
causing resentment among the local Greeks tensions in Constantinople
finally boiled over in 1182 when the Greeks massacred nearly the entire
60,000 Italian population of Constantinople in 1194 Holy Roman
Emperor Henry the sick took control of the Norman Kingdom southern Italy and
Sicily through his marriage to Constance daughter of the Norman King Roger the
second Henry’s son Frederick would go on to lead a series of wars against the
city-states of Italy the would eventually lead the Pope to turn to a
new ally France Venice got its revenge against
Constantinople in 1204 when the Fourth Crusade which had been commissioned to
come to the aid of the Crusader States instead sacked Constantinople and
replaced the Byzantine Empire with the Latin Empire the Byzantine Empire splits
into three different kingdoms on the opposite Shores around Nicaea in 1209
francis of assisi formed the order of Friars Minor with the approval of Pope
Innocent the third the Friars devoted themselves to lives of poverty and
preaching in southern France the old heresy of manichaeism had been revived
by the Cathars in 1209 openness and the third proclaimed a crusade against the
Cathars which was completed by the kingdom of france in 1226 saint dominic
founder of the order of preachers followed the Crusader armies preaching
conversion to the Cathar people as early as the 8th century the doctrine of the
Holy Eucharist had been the subjective academic discussion in Western Europe in
the 11th century bérenger of Tours was condemned for
denying that the body and blood of Jesus Christ were truly present in the
sacrament of the Eucharist in 1215 the fourth Lateran council affirmed the
doctrine of transubstantiation declaring his body and blood are truly contained
in the sacrament of the altar under the forms of bread and wine the bread and
wine having been transubstantiated by God’s power into his body and blood so
that in order to achieve this mystery of unity we receive from God what he
received from us throughout the first half of the 13th
century holy roman emperor frederick ii led multiple military campaigns against
his Hallion city-states that resisted his rule supporters of the emperor
became known as Ghibellines while opponents of the emperor became known as
Guelph’s the constant fighting in chaos throughout Italy destabilized and
endangered the papacy in the coming decades ho urban the fourth would turn
to the French Duke Charles of Anjou to restore stability to the Italian
peninsula the Carmelite Order was the only Catholic religious order formed in
the Crusader States and was named after Mount Carmel in northern Palestine in
1251 a Carmelite priest in England named Simon stock received a vision of the
Blessed Virgin Mary in which she gave him the brown scapular promising that
those who died wearing the scapular would be saved in 1258 Michael the
eighth that the kingdom of Nicaea to retake Constantinople from the Latin
Empire re-establishing the Byzantine Empire Michael sought reconciliation
with the West particularly to save the Byzantine Empire from the ambitions of
the new King of Sicily Charles of Anjou in 1258 manfred an illegitimate son of
the Holy Roman Emperor usurped the throne of Sicily Pope Urban the fourth
saw an opportunity to end the constant wars in Italy by declaring Manfred’s
rule illegitimate and requesting the intervention of Charles of Anjou son of
the King of France Charles entered Italy with a powerful French army in 1266 and
defeated and killed Manfred allowing Charles to become ruler of the new
kingdom of Naples over southern Italy and Sicily the Holy Roman Empire
dispatched a relief force under Emperor konradin last heir of the Hohenstaufen
dynasty the konradin was defeated and executed by Charles
in the middle of the 13th century the clear and precise scholastic theology of
Dominican friar Thomas Aquinas earned him the nickname the angelic doctor
Aquinas emphasized the importance of the intellect over the will he argued that
the human intellect was the highest nature in the created universe and that
humans would come to know God through our intellect Aquinas resolved the
problem of universals with the doctrine of moderate realism teaching that the
human intellect allows the mind to understand universals that truly exists
in particular outside the mind Aquinas died while on his way to the Council of
Leon in 1274 at the Council of Leon in 1274 Byzantine Emperor Michael the
eighth and patriarch Germanness of Constantinople agreed to the demands of
the Catholic Church the Pope was recognized as supreme and the Byzantine
church agreed that the holy spirit proceeded from the father through the
son the by sometime people however still incense to the Latins for sacking
Constantinople refused to accept the Council of Leon
despite forceful measures by Emperor Michael to impose it on his people King Rudolph the first of Germany had
renounced all Habsburg claims to Rome and Sicily leaving Charles of Anjou in
control of southern Italy and Sicily Pope Martin the fourth excommunicated
Byzantine Emperor Michael the ape Charles prepared a fleet to invade
Constantinople but before the invasion took launch the people of Sicily
rebelled in the Sicilian Vespers heated the third the King of Aragon invaded
Sicily and Charles had to abandon his plans to invade Constantinople the
Mongols had conquered Persia by 12:21 and in 1258 they captured baghdad
destroying the Abbasid Caliphate the ia bid Sultanate in Egypt was overthrown by
the Mamluks who allied with the surviving Crusader states of Jerusalem
Tripoli and Antioch against the Mongols once the Mongol
threat had been reduced the Mamluks sank the remaining Crusader states in
response to arrogance invasion of Sicily Pope Martin the fourth called for the
arrogance Crusades which saw over 100,000 French soldiers under King
Philip the third the nephew of Charles of Anjou invade Spain nearly the entire
French army was destroyed and King Philip died his son fed up the fourth
managed to escape back into France in 1288 a Nestorian priest from China
Robin BA Salma completed his journey to Rome where he was welcomed by Pope
Nicholas the fourth and allowed to celebrate Mass in his own liturgical
Rite perhaps the only scholastic rival to Thomas Aquinas was the Franciscan
theologian Duns Scotus who in the late 13th century developed a
theology that emphasized God’s freedom of will rather than God’s intellect
which had been the emphasis of Aquinas thus SCOTUS introduced the question of
voluntarism whether gods will precedes God’s intellect
although SCOTUS taught that God’s Will was always directed towards God’s own
Beauty subsequent philosophers such as William of Occam would introduce radical
notions of God’s freedom of will SCOTUS also argued conclusively in favor of the
Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary teaching that Mary was
conceived without original sinn Rome soon found that his new French
masters were no less troublesome than the Holy Roman Empire the French
monarchy was left on the verge of bankruptcy by the Aragonese crusade and
King Philip the fourth whose father died in the crusade tanks the Catholic Church
in France as a source of revenue which set off a conflict with Pope Boniface
the 8th King Philip the four called a council to assert the Kings rights over
the church in France in 1302 Pope Boniface the eighth responded with the
papal bull unum sanctum which declared that the Pope not only held supreme
spiritual authority on earth but also all temporal authority and that all
Kings including Philip was subject to the Pope the bull famously states we
declare we proclaim we define that it is absolutely necessary for salvation that
every human creature be subject to the Roman pontiff King Philip the fourth was
outraged by unum Sanctum an ordered pope boniface to be abducted the Pope was
kidnapped but quickly liberated and died shortly thereafter from his mistreatment
in captivity in 1309 pope clement v moved the papal court to Avignon near
the French border to placate King Philip the Avignon papacy would last until 1377
when pope gregory xi had the urging of st. Catherine of Siena returned the
papacy to Rome the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor had
been in a state of almost constant conflict since the investiture
controversy of the 11th century the Avignon papacy now made it clear that
France had become the dominant power behind the papacy Pope John the 22nd
excommunicated Holy Roman Emperor Louie the fourth in 1324 Louie responded by
installing an anti Pope in Rome and by employing scholars such as Maher Silius
of Padua to write treatises advocating that the secular monarch rather than the
Pope should have supreme authority over the church the most brilliant scholar
employed by Emperor Louie was Franciscan philosopher William of Ockham who
advanced the philosophies of nominalism and volunteerism
akhom challenged Aquinas his solution to the problem of universals arguing that
only particulars exist outside the mind and the universals are the mental
substitute for real things a philosophy known as Turman ism ahkam also radically
advanced the notion of voluntarism there had been introduced by Duns Scotus
arguing that God was radically free to act in any manner
akhom went so far as to declare that God could have redeemed the human race by
becoming a donkey rather than a man Vulcan became known as the father of
epistemology and would have a profound influence on philosophers throughout the
second millennium his followers included yet gruta founder of the devotion
Madonna and Martin Luther who started the Protestant Reformation
akhom felons conflict with Pope John the 22nd over the issue of Franciscan
poverty and was excommunicated meanwhile in Constantinople controversy
arose when Gregory Palamas a practitioner of the monastic movement
known as haste chasm argued that a real distinction exists between God’s
existence and God’s energies Palamas taught that God interacts with the
created world through his uncreated energies this teaching was ratified by a
series of synopsis Constantinople from 1341 to 1351 however Latin scholars
condemned the teaching arguing that the teaching of a real distinction between
God’s essence and energies amounts to polytheism King Charles the fourth of
France died without a male heir in 1328 his nearest relative was King Edward the
third of England who claimed the French throne instead Philip the sixth cousin
of Charles was crowned King Edward initially accepted Philip but changed
his mind in 1337 setting off the Hundred Years War the English fought not only to
attain the French throne but to maintain their substantial land holdings on the
continent in Normandy and Aquitaine in 1347 Genoese traders fled from an
outbreak of the plague in the Crimea but carried the plague with them to Sicily
from where is spread to all of Europe the plague killed an estimated 75 to 200
million people wiping out 30 to 60 percent of Europe’s population in
England in the 13 70s a secular college professor John Wickliffe began writing
criticisms of the church similar to Arnold address here 200 years earlier
Wickliffe called for the removal of temporal authority from the clergy and
the divestment of the church is wealth Wickliffe compared the Pope with the
Antichrist and argued that the Bible was the only source of authority in the
church he became the first person to translate the Bible into English his
followers became known as Lollards Wickliffe was posthumously declared a
heretic by the Council of Constance in 1415
in China the red turban rebellion from 1350 to 1368 threw off Mongol rule the
Nestorian church of the east had been associated with the mongols and was
suppressed following the rebellion in 1370 for a Dutch Roman Catholic Deacon
named geared gruta a student of William of Ockham began a public missionary
campaign in which he denounced worldly pleasures gruta founded the Brethren for
the common life in 1387 an order of canons regular priests devoted to public
ministry and who lived in community the heart of this devotion Madonna was to
search for inner peace based on the denial of one’s own self and achieved by
ardour and silence the devotion Madonna emphasized solitary meditation on Christ
passion and redemption on one’s own death the Last Judgement heaven and hell
Thomas a Kempis author of the popular devotional book
the imitation of Christ was a priest in the brethren for common life in 1378
just one year after the end of the Avignon papacy a faction of Cardinals
rebelled against Pope Urban the sixth electing anti Pope Clement the seventh
in Avignon successes of anti Pope Clement the seventh continued to claim
to be the rightful pope until 14 29 the schism was exacerbated by a council in
pisa in 1409 that elected a second anti Pope migrating Muslims from Persia and
the oghuz Turkish homeland overcame the Seljuks in Anatolia and formed the
Ottoman Empire in the 13th century the Ottomans conquered Anatolia and
successfully invaded Eastern Europe seizing most of Bulgaria Serbia
Macedonia and the Balkans leaving Constantinople almost entirely
surrounded tima founder of the timurid empire
invaded Anatolia in 1403 and decisively defeated the Ottomans of the Battle of
Ankara in 1403 the surviving Ottoman factions were thrown into civil war for
the following 10 years Timur also defeated the Mamluk Muslims in the
Levant and Iraq leaving his empire as the dominant Muslim power in the Middle
East Timur died in 1405 and his empire disintegrated leaving the Ottomans and
Mamluks to struggle for control of them at least the Western schism was finally
brought to an end when Pope Gregory the twelve resigned following the Council of
Constance in 1415 Gregory died in 1417 and Pope Martin v was elected in his
place the Council of Constance gave rise to the conciliar movement in the 15th
century the doctrine that church councils had more authority than the
Pope the Roman Church never accepted the conciliar movement and Pope Martin v was
quick to assert the supremacy of the Pope over church councils the Council of
Constance had condemned Jan Hus a bohemian priest who followed some of the
teachings of John Wycliffe criticized indulgences and asserted the authority
of Scripture over the hierarchy of the church HUS was burned at the stake by
the Council of Constance in 1415 and his followers in Bohemia revolted against
the Catholic Church a radical party of her sites rejected everything that they
believed had no basis in the Bible such as the veneration of saints and images
vasts intercession for the dead confession indulgences and the
sacraments of confirmation and the anointing of the sick Pope Martin the
fit authorized for Crusades against the her sites but who site leader Jan’s iske
defeated all four of them a series of compromises were negotiated between the
moderate her sites and the Catholic Church over the next century
anteye Pope Clement the eighth in a veneer on did not resign until 1429 in
1438 King Charles the seventh in France issued the pragmatic sanction which
required a church council with authority superior to that of the Pope to be held
every 10 years required election rather than appointment to ecclesiastical
offices prohibited the Pope from bestowing and profiting from benefices
and forbade appeals to Rome from places further than two days journey the Pope
never accepted the pragmatic sanction following the end of the Ottoman civil
war the Ottomans attacked Constantinople capturing Thessalonica and laying siege
to the city in 1420 to Byzantine Emperor John the 8th visited Pope Eugene the 4th
to ask for help the Council of Florence met in 1439 attended by Byzantine
Emperor John the 8th and patriarch Joseph ii of constantinople as well as
over 700 delegates from various Eastern nations including Russia Armenia and
Ethiopia the Byzantines agreed to Catholic demands of the council but once
again the people of Constantinople refused to accept it
Grand Prince Vasili of the Grand Duchy of Moscow also refused to accept the
council sultan murad ii had treated constantinople as a vassal state until
his death in 1451 when his son mehmet ii took the throne and was determined to
bring an end to the byzantine empire once and for all
Mehmed used the new technology of siege cannons to destroy Constantinople’s
walls which had defended the city against all would-be conquerors
for over a thousand years on May 29th 1453 the ottomans breached the city
walls killed emperor constantine xi and plundered the city for three days the
Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt survived until 1517 when it was conquered by the
Ottoman Empire French King Charles the seventh
successfully defeated the remaining English possessions in Normandy bringing
an effective end to the Hundred Years War with his victory at the Battle of
castellón in July 1453 in 1469 ferdinand ii of aragon word catherine the first of
Castile uniting the two dynasties and bringing about the kingdom of Spain in
1478 Ferdinand and Isabella implemented the Spanish Inquisition charged with
investigating suspected heretics the Inquisition focused primarily on
converse from Islam and Judaism who were suspected of reverting to their former
religion in 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella expelled the Jews from Spain the
expulsion of Muslims from Spain would not come until 1609 while the University
of Paris delved ever deeper into fringe questions of scholasticism Rome and the
Italian city-states sought to recover the works of ancient Greek antiquity
that were made available through the Crusades and the flight of Greek
intellectuals from the advancing Ottoman Empire
these ancient Greek writings introduced new secular humanist motive thought to
Western Europe such as the maxim of the ancient Greek writer Protagoras man is
the measure of all things the Renaissance saw Italy’s wealthy
elite abandon all pretense of religious piety as they indulged in opulent
displays of art and architecture popular resentment grew throughout Italy against
the irreligious nature of the Renaissance in Florence Dominican friar
Girolamo Savonarola led a revolt and briefly took over the government
Savonarola who was excommunicated and publicly executed
Florence remained under the rule of a revolutionary government whose secretary
at war was Nicolo Machiavelli in 1488 what Jesus pleura surounded the
Cape of Good Hope for the first time in modern history in 1492 Christopher
Columbus discovered the Americas these events paved the way for Catholic
missionary work across the whole world in the coming centuries the Italian
city-states of Genoa Venice Milan Florence and Pisa
had been in an almost constant state of war with each other for several
centuries in the early 16th century they appealed for intervention from the two
largest powers in Europe France and the Holy Roman Empire when France sought an
alliance with Spain the Spanish quickly used their holdings in Sicily to take
over the kingdom of Naples the Pope now found himself caught between three great
powers France Spain and the Holy Roman Empire 1,500 years after the birth of
Jesus Christianity was fracturing in Africa
and Asia Nubian Christianity and the Church of the East had shrunk
significantly from their former peak most of the population in the Greek
oriental Orthodox and Nestorian churches had rejected the reunion that had been
negotiated at the Council of Florence the Ottoman Empire had conquered all the
original Apostolic churches other than Rome Germany under the influence of
writers such as William of Occam and Jan Hus have lost respect for the Pope
France had come to view church councils and his King as superior to the Pope and
Italy had fallen into the decadent excesses of the Renaissance but even as
the old world was abandoning Catholicism millions of people across the Americas
Africa and Asia stood ready to embrace the Catholic faith in the coming
centuries in 1505 hope julius ii announced plans
to rebuild st. Peter’s Basilica Julia successor Pope Leo the tenth offered
indulgences throughout Europe for those who contributed to the basilica’s
construction the Renaissance heavily influenced political theory in Europe
and increasingly led monarchs to view themselves as superior to the Pope not
only in secular matters but even in matters of religion in 1513 Nicolo
Machiavelli wrote the prince which argued that religion was a man-made tool
for princes to use for their own political interests King Francis the
first and Pope Leo the tenth negotiated the repeal of the pragmatic sanction
with the Concordat of Bologna in 1516 which affirmed the Pope’s supremacy over
church councils and did the election of French bishops and provided for revenue
sharing between the church and the king in France in 1517 Augustinian a monk
Martin Luther published 95 theses critical of the practice of selling
indulgences when the catholic church condemned Luther’s teachings Luther’s
criticisms escalated into an attack on the Pope himself in 1521 following his
excommunication by Pope Leo the tenth Luther called the Pope the Antichrist
other opponents of the Pope such as shield tricked swingley in Zurich
Switzerland sprung up across Northern Europe King Charles the first of Spain
was elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1519 making him ruler of Spain the Holy Roman
Empire the Netherlands Sicily and Naples the most powerful man in Europe
the forces of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain were heavily involved in the
ongoing Italian Wars in the first half of the 16th century in 1527 soldiers of
the Holy Roman Empire sacked Rome an estimated 6,000 to 12,000 people were
murdered the population of Rome dropped from 55 thousand to a mere 10,000 Pope
Clement the seventh became the prisoner of Emperor Charles the fifth during the
same year pope clement denied a request from king henry the eighth of england
for an annulment from his wife Catherine of Aragon who was the aunt of Charles to
the shock of the Christian world France allied itself with the Ottoman Empire
against the Holy Roman Empire in 1526 Suleiman the Magnificent Sultan of the
Ottoman Empire conquered Hungary in 1529 he laid siege to Vienna but was repulsed
Suleiman attempted to attack Vienna a second time in 1532 but failed to reach
the city in 1540 for emperor charles v was forced to concede dominion over
Hungary to Suleiman in 1531 a native Mexican named Juan Diego received a
vision of the Blessed Virgin Mary when Juan Diego’s Bishop did not believe his
story the Blessed Virgin Mary instructed Juan Diego to gather flowers in his
cloak and present them to the bishop when Juan Diego opened his cloak an
image of the Blessed Virgin was revealed on the cloak which has been miraculously
preserved to the present day it is the only Marian apparition to have occurred
in the Americas while France Spain the Holy Roman Empire
and the Ottoman Empire fought for dominance in the south northern European
monarchs left the Catholic Church on mass in the 1530s in 1531 a group of
German princes formed the Shmuel called Italy and left the Roman Catholic Church
England followed suit in 1534 followed by Sweden Denmark Norway Iceland and
Greenland in 1536 one of the earliest adherents the Reformation in France was
a lawyer named John Calvin Calvin was forced to flee France by Catholic
authorities in 1541 he became the leader of the Reformation in Geneva with the
Reformation splintering into Lutheran’s Irving lien Anabaptist and even anti
Trinitarian sects Calvin sought to unify Protestantism by writing a comprehensive
treatise on the Christian faith the Institute’s of the Christian religion
Calvin’s teachings became widely popular among Protestants in the Netherlands and
Scotland and his disciples were instrumental in bringing the Reformation
to France Calvin continued the philosophical shift
away from the intellect and toward the will that had begun with SCOTUS and
akhom arguing that an individual’s faith is a matter of affection rather than
intellect and that God exercised his freedom of will by predestiny certain
people to hell without the need to give any intellectual justification for doing
so in 1552 shimon viii was elected
patriarch of mosul and leader of the church of the east in contested
circumstances pope julius the third approved his election and shim ins
followers split off from the Church of the east
forming the Chaldeans Catholic Church in full communion with Rome
opponents of shimon continued to elect a rival patriarch in schism with the
Church of Rome war broke out between the Shamal Celtic League and emperor charles
v in 1546 charles quickly crushed the Shmuel Celtic League and sought to
impose Roman Catholicism throughout the Holy Roman Empire in 1552 the Lutheran
princes in Germany enlisted the support of King Henry ii of france who though
catholic was happy to ally with any enemy of Charles
whether it was the Ottoman Empire all the Lutheran princes with Henry’s
support the Lutheran princes drove Charles out of Germany and he was forced
to negotiate the Peace of Augsburg which established the principle of quiesce
regio EIU’s religio each prince in the Holy Roman Empire was free to decide the
religion of his realm George Wishart a disciple of children’s
ingly began preaching Protestantism in Scotland in 1544 he was burned at the
stake on the orders of Cardinal David beaten in 1546 in retaliation Wishart
followers assassinated Cardinal Beaton later that year after Henry the eighth
attempted to invade Scotland France intervened and protected the Catholic
Regent Mary of Gea’s after Mary died the French withdrew and the Scottish
Parliament adopted a reformed confession of faith Mary Queen of Scots failed to
re-establish Catholicism and her son James the 6th made Protestantism
official and outlawed Catholicism John Knox a student of John Calvin was the
theological leader of the Scottish Reformation and the Presbyterian Church
would carry on his tradition in the United States in the coming centuries in
1557 the army of king philip ii of spain conquered the papal States up to the
walls of Rome forcing Pope Paul the 4th to surrender to King Philip’s demands
the Italian Wars concluded in 1559 with France renouncing all of its claims over
Italy leaving Habsburg Spain in a position of dominance over the Italian
peninsula this marked a new era of peace and stability for the papacy as nearly
eight centuries of Italian city-state warfare and invasions from France and
the Holy Roman Empire were brought to an end
there had been 41 anti-popes in the previous 15 centuries but since the end
of the Italian Wars there has not been a single anti Pope
the end of the Italian Wars allowed the Catholic Church to complete the Council
of Trent in 1563 which instituted reforms in Catholic liturgy music art
and church governance and placed an emphasis on missions which were led by
the new society of Jesus founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola the Jesuits in France followers a Protestantism known
as Hugo knows waged a devastating war led by the house of khand against the
Catholic monarchy supported by the House of Gea’s in the French Wars of Religion
from 1560 to to 1598 that would claim the lives of more than 3 million people
in 1598 the wars came to an end when the Edict of Nantes granted the Hugo nose
substantial religious freedom the Ottoman Empire captured Cyprus from
Venice in 1571 in response the holy League consisting of a navy from Spain
Venice Sicily Naples Genoa and the papal States met the Ottoman Navy at the
Battle of Lepanto the Ottoman Navy was destroyed securing the western
Mediterranean Sea against the Ottoman Empire Pope Pius the 5th credited the
Holy League’s victory to the recitation of the Rosary and instituted the feast
of Our Lady of Victory which is now celebrated as our Lady of the Rosary the
Ottoman Empire treated all Christians under his domain regardless of their
church affiliation as a single ethnic group the rum millet they were given
limited religious freedom subject to a poll tax and subject to the authority of
the patriarch of Constantinople Russia was the only territory where Eastern
Orthodox Christians were not under Ottoman rule in 1589 Moscow became a
Patriarchate independent of Constantinople in 1595 the Ruthenian
Church in Kiev broke communion with Constantinople and re entered into
communion with Rome in the union of Brest many Eastern Orthodox members
split off and formed a rival Church loyal to Constantinople in the 16th
century Catholic missionaries spread the gospel around the entire world while
Europe’s faithful struggled to understand the competing religious sects
springing up in the wake of the Reformation English philosopher Francis
Bacon introduced a new branch of philosophy independent of religion
empiricism the acquisition of knowledge through inductive reasoning and
scientific observation of events in nature Bacon’s empiricism would prove
highly influential in the Scientific Revolution of the following centuries in
contrast to Bacon’s empiricism Rene Descartes explored the limits of what
man could know through reason alone instead of asking what is true they
can’t ask what can I be certain is true Descartes thus switched the focus of
philosophical inquiry from objective truth to personal subjective
interpretation thus although Descartes was a devout Catholic who was trying to
defend the Christian faith through reason his work had the unintended
effect of opening philosophy to relativism and subjectivism in the
coming centuries in 1618 war broke out between Catholics
and Protestants in the Holy Roman Empire the war drew in every major power in
Europe the war was more destructive than anything Europe had previously seen 8
million people were killed although the war was nominally concluded with the
Treaty of Westphalia which granted additional religious freedoms to
Protestants war between the great powers of Europe would continue with only small
interruptions well into the following century in 1642 conflict with Parliament
forced King Charles the first of England to flee London supporters of Parliament
led by Oliver Cromwell defeated the king in the ensuing English Civil War and the
king was executed in 1649 Cromwell a member of the new independent Puritan
religious movement which supported the complete independence of each
congregation without any form of church hierarchy became Lord Protector of
England until his death England had conquered Ireland in 1603
but Ireland refused to abandon the Roman Catholic faith after Ireland rebelled in
1641 Oliver Cromwell conquered the country from 1649 to 1600
and Catholicism in England and Ireland it is estimated that over 400,000 Roman
Catholics in Ireland lost their lives during the conquest following the
conquest the public practice of Catholicism was banned and Catholic
priests were killed when captured Descartes had set forth a recent proof
for the existence of God but in doing so he laid the foundation for deism
the belief that God after setting the universe in motion ceases to interfere
in its affairs in the 17th century the Jewish Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza
went even further and argued that there is no distinction between God and the
universe Spinoza denied the existence of freewill and viewed the entire course of
the universe including human actions as predetermined and unchangeable in
psychology Spinoza argued that humans were slaves to their emotions and that
the intellect could never overcome emotion Spinoza also introduced critical
textual analysis of the Bible and was expelled from his
Jewish community for teaching that Moses was not the author of the first five
books of the Old Testament Europe’s intellectual and political
elite were appalled by the horrific destruction of the 30 Years War and the
despotic Puritan regime of Oliver Cromwell to prevent further religious
violence they introduced a milder non confrontational version of Christianity
English philosopher John Locke led this movement by offering a new
interpretation of the Bible alone free from tradition Locke argued that the
Bible requires nothing more than for Humanity to believe in Jesus as its
Redeemer and that any further details did not warrant dividing into competing
denominations Locke personally held to the growing belief among Deus and other
intellectual elites in Europe that Jesus Christ was not God but merely a man who
had tried to enlighten humanity in 1630 the Puritans landed in Massachusetts to
form a city on a hill in 1632 Lord Baltimore a Roman Catholic received
a commission from King Charles the first to form the colony of Maryland which he
established as a haven for Catholics in the new world since the time of the
Crusades Franciscan missionaries had been working in Syria and Palestine in
1662 Andrew aki-chan was elected syriac orthodox patriarch of Antioch and
restored communion with Rome in 1663 this provoked a split in the community
and the Ottoman government supported the Syriac Orthodox Church against the
Syriac Catholics and prevented additional capital patriarchs from being
elected Lutheran and Calvinist reformers had attempted to join forces with
Eastern Orthodox churches against Rome the Eastern Orthodox initially rejected
the reformist teachings as modern innovations but in 1629 a Calvinist
manifesto was circulated in Geneva their claim to be authored by patriarch Cyril
lucaris of Constantinople in 1672 the Eastern Orthodox churches held a synod
at Jerusalem the condemned Calvinism as heretical and affirmed that in the
sacrament of the Holy Eucharist the bread and wine are transubstantiated
into the true body and blood of Jesus Christ
from 1673 to 1675 a French nun named Margaret Mary Alacoque received visions
of Jesus Christ in which he asked to be honored under the figure of his heart
and by Eucharistic Adoration during Holy Hour on Thursdays and the reception of
Holy Communion on the first Friday of each month in the second half of the
17th century a group of Lutheran’s in Germany sought to introduce a deeper
sense of piety and devotion in the individual believer this pietistic
wickley spread throughout germany but it was opposed by the Lutheran hierarchy
because it treated doctrine as a secondary matter to the practice of the
Christian faith and thus allowed for a certain indifference to variations in
doctrine the piety strong influence on John Wesley and the American Great
Awakening in the 18th century the Ottoman Empire’s final assault on
central europe was defeated at the Battle of Vienna by forces of the Holy
Roman Empire Poland and the Holy League in the coming centuries the Austrian
Hapsburgs Rhee conquered much of Eastern Europe and the Balkans ever since France
had lost its grip on the papacy following the end of the Western schism
the French monarch and many of the French clergy had favored a new movement
called Gallican ISM which sought to limit interference from the Pope in
spiritual and secular affairs the Gallican movement emphasized the
absolute power of the king over the church in France and declared that the
Pope did not have authority to act without the church’s consent king louis
xiv of france favoured Gallican ism but as a concession to the Pope issued the
Edict of Fontainebleau in 1685 which revoked the Edict of Nantes outlawed
Protestantism in the resulting persecution hundreds of thousands of
hyouka notes left the country in 1686 louis xiv claimed that out of an
original hyouka no population of 800,000 to 900,000 only 1000 to 1500 remained in
france france soon became embroiled in wars against the netherlands the Holy
Roman Empire England and Spain in the war of Spanish Succession and the
war of the crow duple alliance Spain ceded control of his Italian possessions
and Austria acquired Sardinia Naples and Milan Italy and in particular Rome
remained largely at peace throughout this time
in 1724 cyril the 6th Tanis became the greek Melkite patriarch of antioch and
sought reunion with the pope in 1729 Pope Benedict the 13th recognized Cyril
as patriarch of Antioch patriarch Jeremias the 3rd of Constantinople
declared Cyril’s election to be invalid excommunicated him and ordained a deacon
Sylvester of Antioch then appointed Sylvester to the patriarchal sea of
Antioch Jeremias and Sylvester began a campaign of persecution II and Cyril
animal kite faithful who supported him enforced by Ottoman Turkish troops in
1733 Abdullah Zakia set up the first printing press in the Middle East at a
multi Catholic monastery in Mount Lebanon the printing press used Arabic
movable type the 18th century saw a philosophy make a
complete break with religion through the Enlightenment which emphasized
empiricism rationalism and skepticism French philosopher Voltaire argued for a
society based on reason rather than religious dogma Scottish philosopher
David Hume rejected both the rationalism of Rene Descartes and the empiricism of
John Locke Hume taught a philosophy of extreme skepticism arguing that human
knowledge is nothing more than a bundle of sensations like Spinoza Hume taught
that humans are slaves to their emotions German philosopher Immanuel Kant sought
to reconcile the schools of rationalism empiricism and skepticism creating the
new philosophical school of idealism Kant severed the final remaining links
between theology and metaphysics by denying that the existence of God could
be proved through human reason Kant accordingly consigned religion to an
entirely separate sphere from philosophy and argued that religion should be based
on a pure moral disposition of the heart rather than ritual ceremony and
hierarchy the cold skepticism of the Enlightenment sparked a reaction in the
form of a Great Awakening of religious fervor in the American colonies in 1731
Jonathan Edwards delivered a public sermon in Boston that attacked
Arminianism the doctrine that man must cooperate with God’s grace to come to
faith in salvation Edwards declared that it was mere and arbitrary grace for God
to grant any person the faith necessary for salvation
Edwards sermon sparked a wave of powerful preaching they gave listeners a
sense of deep personal need for salvation by Jesus Christ the Great
Awakening pulled away from ritual sacraments and hierarchy and focused on
the direct relationship between the individual believer and Jesus Christ the
movement greatly increased membership in the fledgling Baptist and Methodist
denominations in the American colonies in the 1730’s in England John Wesley
began the practice of open-air preaching and meeting in small groups in an effort
to revitalize the Anglican Church his followers were soon called Methodists
and spread to the United States following the American Revolutionary War
the Anglican Church had few ministers in the United States and was not ordaining
new ones so John Wesley granted Thomas Cook the authority to ordain Methodist
ministers in America because Wesley and Cooke were not bishops the Anglican
Church refused to recognize the ministers they ordained leading to the
split between the Methodist Church and the Anglican Church Europe’s major
powers clashed in the Seven Years War which led to the loss at multiple
overseas colonies by France and Spain and led to the eventual partition and
dissolution of Poland the fighting generally did not involve Italy or Rome
which remained at peace under Austrian rule in 1782 ma Ignatius Michael the 3rd
was elected syriac orthodox patriarch of Antioch after professing a Catholic
definition of faith re-establishing the line of Syriac Catholic patriarchs that
continues down to the present day the Maya physique faction of the Syriac
Orthodox Church did not accept the election the French Revolution was
particularly hostile toward religion the Revolution adopted an anti-christian
cult of reason as his official religion followed by the cult of the Supreme
Being Catholic priests and nuns were among those targeted by the
revolutionaries in the wake of the French Revolution the French clergy
abandoned the Gallic anism and embraced the Pope as their protector with the
philosophers of the Enlightenment claiming for themselves a monopoly on
human intellect and reason the Second Great Awakening in the United States
provided an outlet for Christians who were put off by the cold and skeptical
rationalism of the Enlightenment the Second Great Awakening appealed to
emotionalism and the supernatural and attracted new members to Baptist and
Methodist congregations Italy’s 237 year period of peace under
Spanish and Austrian rule came to an end with Napoleon’s conquest of Italy in
1796 in 1798 French troops captured Rome and took Pope Pius the 6th prisoner he
died the following year Napoleon defeated the forces of the Holy
Roman Empire in 1806 leading to his dissolution Vienna became the capital of
the new Austrian Empire French troops occupied Rome again in 1808 and Napoleon
declared that he was seizing the papal States in response Pope Pius the seventh
excommunicated Napoleon French troops took Pope Pius prisoner and exiled him
to Savona in Northwest Italy Napoleon abdicated in April 1814 and Pope Pius
was released being welcomed back in Rome as a hero
although Austria received back its Italian territories the peninsula was
now ripe for a nationalist unification movement in 1830 a French nun named
Catherine Laboure received a vision of the Blessed Virgin Mary in which she was
told to construct a medal showing on one side an image of Mary standing on a
globe and crushing a serpent beneath her feet with Ray’s shooting out of her
hands she is surrounded by the words o Mary conceived without sin pray for us
who have recourse to thee on the other side is a cross and bar surmounting the
letter M the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary surrounded
by twelve stars the Blessed Virgin Mary promised that all who wear the medal
will receive great Grace’s the Russian Empire had absorbed Poland and Ukraine
in the 17th and 18th centuries both countries had large Catholic populations
in November 1831 Poland rebelled against Russian rule Russia crushed the
rebellion and blamed it on Catholic instigators and undertook harsh measures
to force Catholics in Poland in Ukraine to convert to Russian orthodoxy
in 1848 revolutionaries in Rome protesting Austrian occupation of Italy
seized control of the city and forced Pope Pius the 9th to flee the city in
disguise one year later French troops entered
Rome and restored the Pope’s authority over the papal States although the
Jesuits had been initially welcomed in China they began to experience
persecution in the 17th century Catholicism was introduced to Korea in
the 18th century by converts from China but in the 19th century the Catholic
Church was persecuted by the Korean government for its prohibition of
ancestor worship st. Francis Xavier had brought Catholicism to Japan in the 16th
century but the church was soon forced underground by the Japanese government
the Catholic Church survived underground in Japan for 250 years until Catholicism
was legalized in 1858 in England anglican priest John Henry Newman
converted to Catholicism in 18-49 in 1850 Pope Pius the 9th reinstituted the
Catholic hierarchy in England in 1854 Pope Pius the Knife issued the papal
bull ineffable as’ which stated we declare pronounce and define that the
doctrine which asserts of the Blessed Virgin Mary from the first moment of her
conception by a singular grace and privilege of Almighty God and in view of
the merits of Jesus Christ savior of the human race was preserved free from every
stain of original sin is a doctrine revealed by God and for this reason must
be firmly and constantly believed by all the faithful
in 1858 a young peasant girl named bernadette soubiros received visions of
the Blessed Virgin Mary at a cave in Lewes France
Mary told Bernadette I am the Immaculate Conception confirming the bull of Pope
Pius the ninth four years earlier a spring flowing from the cave has become
the site of millions of pilgrims each year many of whom have reported
miraculous cures to physical ailments in the early 19th century German
philosopher Heinrich Jacobi argued that the idealist philosophy of Immanuel Kant
when taken to its logical conclusion resulted in nihilism the absence of any
meaning or value in life or the universe Danish philosopher søren kierkegaard
lamented that the uniformity and apathy of the modern world led to a lack of
meaning purpose or value in life German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche believed
that scientific advances showing that man is the product of evolution and that
earth has no special place in the universe had exposed Christianity as a
lie with the result that humans now found themselves in a world without
meaning or purpose Nietzsche lamented the world is not as
it ought to be and the world as it ought to be does not exist
while Europe’s intellectual elite had all but abandoned Christianity by the
19th century the United States saw a frenzy of new religious movements such
as Adventism restoration ISM the holiness movement Mormonism
dispensationalism and the watchtower society as the number of divisions and
denominations in Protestantism continued to grow with each passing decade leaders
of mainline Protestant denominations sought to find interdenominational unity
by placing less emphasis on doctrine they championed the idea that the
essential teachings of Christianity are summed up in a few great simple truths
that are clearly expressed in Scripture and thus it makes little difference to
which particular denomination a person belongs in 1864 to protect the Catholic
Church from the modernist indifferentism that was sweeping through Europe Pope
Pius the 9th published the syllabus of errors which condemned 80 propositions
of modernist philosophical political and religious thought including the
separation of church and state and the notion that every man is free to follow
that religion which he believes to be true in 1870 the first Vatican Council
declared that the Pope is infallible when in the exercise of his officers
Shepherd and teacher of all Christians in virtue of his supreme apostolic
authority he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by
the whole church in 1861 King Victor Emmanuel ii of
piedmont completed the unification of the italian peninsula as the kingdom of
italy but rome was still under the temporal rule of the pope
finally in 1870 soldiers of the new italian kingdom breached the aurelion
walls and stormed the city Pope Pius the 9th was left prisoner
inside the Vatican the 19th century saw a new wave of colonialism in Africa Asia
and Australia that by England France Belgium and Germany each group of
colonists brought their own denomination of preference to the people they
colonized following the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in
1453 the patriarch of Constantinople held authority over Christians in
Eastern Europe and Russia Russia acquired independence from
Constantinople as its own autocephalous Patriarchate in 1589 late in the 19th
century as Eastern Europe was liberated from the Ottoman Empire the new
independent nation-states demanded independence from Constantinople as
autocephalous churches from 1833 to 1951 autocephalous status was claimed by
greece bulgaria serbia bosnia and herzegovina Romania Georgia Estonia
Albania Poland and Czechoslovakia in the 19th century Spain’s colonies in Latin
America and the Pacific won their independence in Wars of revolution in
many colonies the Catholic Church was associated with the Spanish colonizers
and became the focus of attack from leaders of the rebellions particularly
in Mexico from 1894 to 1923 the Ottoman Empire
carried out a series of horrific genocides targeting Greek Assyrian and
Armenian Christians in his territory at least 450,000 Greek 150,000 Assyrian and
1.5 million Armenian Christians were murdered in 1917 three children in
Fatima Portugal received a series of visions of the Blessed Virgin Mary the
Blessed Virgin Mary asked the children to devote themselves to the Holy Trinity
and to pray the rosary every day to end World War one and bring peace to the
world over ten thousand pilgrims flocked to the site of the visions and reported
seeing a miraculous movement of the Sun in the sky following the overthrow of
Tsar Nicholas ii during World War one the Bolsheviks showed no restraint in
persecuting Christians in the Soviet Union
hundreds of bishops priests monks and nuns in major cities were murdered
nearly all the country’s monasteries and convents were liquidated and there were
widespread mass executions of monks and nuns throughout the country following
the Mexican Revolution from 1910 to 1920 the government of Mexico instituted
oppressive measures against Catholics which led to the Cristero rebellion from
1926 to 1929 even following the negotiated peace settlements the secular
government continued its oppressive measures against Catholics between 1926
and 1934 at least 40 priests were killed there were four thousand five hundred
priests serving the people before the rebellion but by 1934 there were only
334 priests licensed by the government to serve 15 million people in Mexico by
1935 seventeen states had no priests at all
in 1929 the kingdom of Italy and pope pius xi negotiated the Lateran treaty
which recognized the full sovereignty of the Holy See in the state of Vatican
City in 1924 a young girl in Poland named Maria Faustina received a vision
of Jesus Christ she immediately joined the convent as a nun and continued to
receive visions of Jesus over the next decade Jesus instructed her to begin a
devotion in the church to the divine mercy in the year 2000 pope john paul ii
instituted the Feast of the Divine Mercy to be celebrated on the first Sunday
after Easter in 1937 Pope Pius the 12th smuggled 300,000
copies of the papal decree MIT brain and disorder into Nazi Germany the decree
condemned the rampant racism and idolatry of the state in Nazi Germany
Pius took the rare step of writing the decree in German rather than Latin and
Catholic priests read the decree in parishes throughout Germany on Palm
Sunday in 1937 an infuriated Hitler ordered hundreds of Catholics priests
and monks arrested while the Gestapo ransacked Catholic churches Joseph
Goebbels remarked after the war the church question has to be solved there
is an insoluble opposition between the Christian and a heroic German worldview
despite numerous requests from Pope Pius the 12th to have Rome declared an open
City during World War two Rome was bombed repeatedly by German American and
English air forces after Italy surrendered to the Allies in 1943 Rome
was occupied by Nazi Germany hewo flattery
an Irish priest at the Vatican organized an underground network to hide Jews and
escaped Allied prisoners from the Nazis when the Nazis learned about her
flatteries activities the head of the Gestapo in Rome ordered a white line
painted at the entrance to st. Peter’s Basilica with orders to shoot Oh
flattery if he crossed it the United States Army captured Rome on June the
4th 1944 nihilism gave way to existentialism following World War two
jean-paul Sartre declared that humans have no creator no essence and must
learn through experience alone and free how to be authentic in a world of
oppressive conformity meanwhile Albert Camus posed the question given that life
is inherently meaningless what kind of life is preferable to suicide
on November the 1st 1950 hope Pius the 12th issued the Apostolic Constitution
when if assent is submersed dais we stated by the authority of our Lord
Jesus Christ of the Blessed apostles Peter and Paul and by our own authority
we pronounced declare and define it to be a divinely revealed dogma that the
immaculate mother of god the ever Virgin Mary having completed the course of her
earthly life was assumed body in soul into heavenly glory the 20th century saw
the introduction of more religious movements and denominations in the
United States such as Pentecostals fundamentalist evangelicals charismatic
and the emerging church while mainline Protestant denominations went through
various mergers and divisions in the 1960s the Second Vatican Council sought
to reform the Catholic Church in light of a rapidly changing world introducing
reforms in liturgy and placing a new emphasis on that humanism in 1964 Pope
Paul the sixth met patriarch athenagoras the first of Constantinople in Jerusalem
the first such meeting since the Council of Florence in 1439 in 1971 hope Paul the South met more and
more Ignatius jacuz but the third syriac orthodox patriarch of antioch and all
the yeast the first such meeting since before the council of Calca don in the
year 451 in 1973 Coptic Pope Shenouda the third of Alexandria visited Pope
Paul the sixth in Rome the first such meeting since before the Council of
Chalcedon in the year 451 in 1984 patriarch Marv Dinka the fourth
of the Church of the East visited Pope John Paul the second in Rome the first
such meeting in history in 2017 Pope Francis of Rome met Pope
Tawadros ii of Alexandria and patriarch
bartholomew of constantinople in cairo egypt Pope Francis and Pope Tawadros
agreed for the first time in history that the Catholic and Coptic churches
would recognize the baptisms of each other’s members you